Comparing Alcohol Mortality in Tsarist and Contemporary Russia: Is the Current Situation Historically Unique?
Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to ‘drunkenness’ were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist ‘European Russia’: an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870–1894, the male death rate from ‘drunkenness’ in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher—23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.
This paper reviews the literature on a theme of influence of alcohol consumption on wages and employment of workers on a labour market. The authors considering overconsumption of alcohol as disease, observed negative influence of abusing alcohol on individual's position on labour market. However some economists have found out positive communication between moderate consumption of alcohol and wages, explaining the given fact to that moderate consumption of alcohol improves health, reducing probability of cardiovascular diseases.
Aims. To determine the impact of a set of 2006 Russian alcohol policies on deaths due to traffic accidents in the country.
Design, Setting, Participants. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the impact of the intervention on the outcome series. The time series began in January 2000 and ended in December 2010. The alcohol policy was implemented in January 2006, providing 132 monthly observations in the outcome series, with 72 months of pre-intervention data and 60 months of post-intervention data.
Measurements. The outcome variables were the monthly number of male- and female-specific deaths of those aged 15+ years due to transport accidents in Russia.
Results The 2006 set of alcohol policies had no impact on female deaths due to traffic accidents (ω0 = 50.31, p = .27). However, the intervention model revealed an immediate and sustained monthly decrease of 203 deaths due to transport accidents for males (ω0 = -203.40, p = .04), representing an 11% reduction relative to pre-intervention levels.
Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with prior research elsewhere showing that alcohol policies are associated with a reduction in deaths due to transport accidents, especially for males. Given the high volume of alcohol consumption and the high rate of deaths due to traffic accidents in Russia, our findings are substantively important. Specifically, our results show that the implementation of the 2006 Russian alcohol policy is partially responsible for saving more than 2400 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to traffic accidents. More generally, our study reveals that alcohol policy is one of multiple pathways that can be utilized to reduce traffic fatalities.
The chapter provides a review of contemporary life style policies in Russia highlighting main issues and suggesting some improvements in governmental interventions.
This paper examines the influence of alcohol consumption on employment, working hours and income of workers on Russian labor market using the data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) from 2007 to 2009. For the purpose of correcting for endogeneity of alcohol consumption and estimation of complex influence of alcohol consumption on the position of the individual on the labor market the system of simultaneous equation was used. Estimates of the coefficients received using a method of maximum simulated likelihood. The result shows that moderate drinkers have higher probability of employment, work more hours and have higher income than abstainers or heavy drinkers. However heavy drinking for males has a negative effect on labor market relative to abstention and moderate drinking reducing probability of employment, hours of work and income. For females heavy drinking is positively connected with income and hours of work relative to abstention, but leads to lower probability of employment.
The chapter examines the place of accidental alcohol poisoning in the ICD and the contribution of mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning to mortality from external causes. The relationship between mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning and alcohol consumption in Russia is analyzed. The level and dynamics of mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning in Russia by sex and age, the impact of mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning on the dynamics of life expectancy, regional inequality in mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning are investigated.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.