How does the value structure underlie value conflict? To win fairly or to win at all costs? A conceptual framework for value-change interventions in sport
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
Since 1987, a multitude of studies referring to the Schwartz (1992) structural model of human values have been published. Although most studies support this conceptual approach, few were based on representative samples. The implementation of the biennial European Social Survey (ESS) in 2002, made responses from 71 representative national samples from 32 countries to a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire available for assessing this model of human values. We present structural analyses of these data using a theory-based approach to multidimensional scaling (Bilsky, Gollan & Döring, 2008) that can be applied to optimally assess the fit of data to diverse theories. The analyses support the circular structure of basic values across countries and within countries across time. They also replicate two findings based on other samples, surveys, and methods of analysis (Fontaine et al., 2008): Deviations from the structure are fewer and the contrast between protection and growth values is sharper in more developed societies
The article presents the results of a study made in October 2018, which considers public opinion regarding the phenomenon of “self-betrayal”. The study was conducted to identify the relevance of the attention to this phenomenon, the frequency of its occurrence, public opinion regarding its nature and personality traits of a person, predisposed to "selfbetrayal". The numerical and percentage results of the respondents' characteristics of the phenomenon of “selfbetrayal” are described, the distribution of this phenomenon by spheres of life, and the top ten personality traits that contribute to the emergence of “self-betrayal” which collected the maximum number of voices according to respondents.
We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection vs. growth, and personal vs. social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N=6059). CFA and MDS analyses support discrimination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. MDS analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.