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Article

Are Guanxi-type Supervisor-Subordinate Relationships Culture-General? An Eight-Nation Test of Measurement Invariance

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2014. Vol. 45. No. 6. P. 921-938.
Smith P., Wasti A., Grigoryan L., Achoui M., Bedford O., Budhwar P., Lebedeva N., Leong ChanHoong, Torres C.

Three dimensions of subordinate-supervisor relations (affective attachment, deference to supervisor, and personal-life inclusion) that had been found by Chen et al. (2009) to be characteristic of a guanxi relationship between subordinates and their supervisors in China were surveyed in Taiwan, Singapore and six non-Chinese cultural contexts. The affective attachment and deference subscales demonstrated full metric invariance whereas the personal-life inclusion subscale was found to have partial metric invariance across all eight samples. Structural equation modelling revealed that the affective attachment dimension had a cross-nationally invariant positive relationship to affective organizational commitment and a negative relationship to turnover intention. The deference to the supervisor dimension had invariant positive relationships with both affective and normative organizational commitment. The personal-life inclusion dimension was unrelated to all outcomes. These results indicate the relevance of aspects of guanxi to superior-subordinate relations in non-Chinese cultures. Studies of indigenous concepts can contribute to a broader understanding of organizational behavior.