Особенности использования экономико-экологических инструментов в России
In the article basic theoretical concepts are considered in relation to the economic instruments of the ecological adjusting, the features ofpractical application of nature protection measures are exposed in foreign countries. The analysis of nature protection activity is conducted in Russia. The features of the use of economic-ecological instruments are exposed in Russia.
A model of contract theory is studied, where the objective functions of a regulation body and firms of two types involve ecological variables. It is shown that the way of working of the regulation mechanism (separating or pooling) depends on both political condition (regulators of what type set mechanism and contracts), and on economic conditions (distinction between “dirty” and “green” firms in efficiency and a degree of their spreading in the economy).
A contract theory model is studied in which objective functions of a regulator and of two types of firms include ecological variables. It is shown that the choice of a way of functioning of the regulating mechanism (separating or pooling) depends both on political conditions (what kind of regulator defines the mechanism and the contracts) and on economic conditions: a difference between ''dirty'' and ''green'' firms in their efficiency and a degree of their prevalence in the economy. Under a small difference in values of parameter characterizing the types of firms it is shown that if, what seems to be typical for many developing and transition economies, the use of ''dirty'' technologies increases the rentability of the firms and the fraction of ''dirty'' firms in the economy is high then the pooling (non-market, in some sense) mechanism is chosen more often. Under conditions which seem to be typical for industrial countries, where ''green'' firms are relatively efficient, a separating (more market) mechanism can be expected more often.
The article examines the issues of inﬂuence of the environmental activity at the value on of the acquisition cost of necessary natural and energy resources for balanced development of socio-economic-ecological system, as well as in terms of economic damages.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.