К проблеме исторических универсалий
The article analyses two conceptual gnoseological points made in the last monograph by Olga M. Medushevskaya – one of the ‘information magnetism’ and another on the nature of the types of historical sources. It is shown that no effect of ‘information magnetism’ could be traced in the process of cognition, while a type of sources is not an objective entity but rather a theoretical construct.
The article offers some observations concerning the current state of the “new history of medicine”, a field of research focused on the role of medicine, its ideas, ideologies and practices in culture and society. The author concentrates on methodological trends of this field, its research agenda, and the challenges it faces at the moment. In spite of the pessimistic opinions of some commentators on the perspectives of its further development, the author concludes that the new medical history in its present state does not show any signs of crisis. Quite the contrary, it is developing fast and steady, reacting to challenges and incorporating new approaches.
The article focuses on the most famous Russian pre-modern autobiography The Life by protopope Avvakum (1621/22–1682) to discuss his wife Natas’ja Markovna as one of its essential characters. Being the leader of the movement against religious reform in the seventeenth century Russia, Avvakum composed his life story in accordance with hagiographical canon of the martyr to send a propaganda message to his followers. The figure of Natas’ja Markovna in his text also works for this aim. In accordance with women’s hagiographic canon she is portrayed as wife and mother completely subjected to her husband’s will and doomed to share all hardships of his life. Though Avvakum’s autobiography was widely read, this religious/social context was often understood as insignificant for understanding its meanings. The same is true for the figure of the protopopica, which was used by Russian scholars and writers of the twentieth century to establish a canon of the model wife.
In the paper the typological analysis of researches in sphere Western esotericism mid 20th-early 21st century made. The aim of the report is to highlight common areas of Western esotericism among the variety of different private researches. For definition of base types of researches the author is guided first of all by geographical, chronological, methodological criteria. As it is represented by comparison of these criteria it is possible to speak about three basic types: «American», «Old European» and «New European». These terms are relative to a certain extent. Each of these strands has its scientific traditions, common methodological and ideological positions. «The American type» was generated due to the unique conditions which have developed in territory of the North America as a result of geographical and historical features. Among its basic representatives are A. Versluis, I.P. Culianu, J. Kripal. «The Old European type» is based on the modern relationship to esotericism, in order to evaluate its contribution to Western history. Among its representatives are J. Webb, U. Eco, early works of A. Faivre and N. Goodrik-Clark. «The New European type» arises in the 90-ies of the 20th century and now in is central to contemporary research in this area in Europe. Among its representatives are W. Hanegraaff, K. von Stukrad, O. Hammer, A. Faivre.
The paper characterizes the first steps in research eminent specialist in archeography, source studies, research Metrica of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The cognitive history paradigm proposed by the prominent Russian scientist is a new research strategy in modern humanities. The crucial element of this concept is an idea of the “intellectual product” as the material evidence and proof of human purpose-oriented activity in history and a universal instrument of cultural exchange across historical periods and political borders. By the using of this concept social scientists obtain the possibility to establish a new methodology of verified historical studies.