Методика исследования динамики научно-технических циклов
Research of trends of the development of the scientific bibliometric information in distributed databases as an application of the Kondratyev’s theory of cyclic dynamics of the socio-economic systems was done in this work. A structural analysis of resources of the intellectual information space was fulfilled and an algorithm for forecasting of the development of scientific and technological trends which basis on the analysis of equidistant time series’ distribution of patents in databases was designed. Indicators, which are reflecting the development of the potential of technology trends and the methodology for calculating ones, were built and represented.
The paper contains a review of the on-line services’ contemporary state, which are providing access to scientific data bases of patents and publications in magazines. On the example of a family of screen’s technologies (CRT, LCD, PDP) were shown the development and the replacement of technological trends in that branch of researches. This analysis was performed on the base of time series of the patent data via methods of the data mining.
Foresight has become an ‘institutional’ activity as more emphasis has been given to the active participation of stakeholders to shape the future of society. As a key element of Foresight, participation improves the quality of Foresight exercises through the engagement of both scientific and non-scientific knowledge, and stakeholder values and preferences. The overall aim of this chapter is to strengthen the Foresight literature with novel concepts and ideas, which are rooted in the participation literature. This will assist Foresight researchers and practitioners understand various rationales of participation and to determine the type and extent of participation that is desirable for different types of Foresight exercises.
Highly cited scientific papers by Russian authors are studied. A definition of highly cited papers based on the interpretation provided by the Essential Science Indicators database is presented; the number of highly cited Russian papers is analyzed against the background of global indices and the disciplinary distribution of these papers is explored. It is shown that in all scientific areas the share of Russian papers that become highly cited is below world average. The impact of coauthorship with foreign scientists on the creation of highly cited papers is investigated. It is concluded that international collaboration has a key role in the related process.
This article analyzes the effects of publication language on the international scientific visibility of Russia using the Web of Science (WoS). Like other developing and transition countries, it is subject to a growing pressure to “internationalize” its scientific activities, which primarily means a shift to English as a language of scientific communication. But to what extent does the transition to English improve the impact of research? The case of Russia is of interest in this respect as the existence of many combinations of national journals and languages of publications (namely, Russian and English, including translated journals) provide a kind of natural I experiment to test the effects of language and publisher's country on the international visibility of research through citations as well as on the referencing practices of authors. Our analysis points to the conclusion that the production of original English-language papers in foreign journals is a more efficient strategy of internationalization than the mere translation of domestic journals. If the objective of a country is to maximize the international visibility of its scientific work, then the efforts should go into the promotion of publication in reputed English-language journals to profit from the added effect provided by the Matthew effect of these venues.
In the current context of the globalization of science, excellence is most often associated with internationalization and assessed through high-impact “international” (English-language) publications. Taking Russian economic science as a case study, this paper argues that the strategies of internationalization of national disciplinary fields are primarily determined by the parameters of the global economics itself. My analysis of the Russian publications in economics covered by Web of Science demonstrates that the very repertoire of international publication strategies of Russian authors is determined by the transnational system of communication in economics. Economics papers from peripheral nations are essentially assigned to regional or “area studies” periodicals, which do not belong to the core of the discipline. Publication in top economics journals requires a specific “international” competency usually obtained through doctoral training at Anglo-American or equivalent PhD programs and generally implies a delocalization of research objects and questions.
The world is changing. From shopping malls to transport terminals, aircraft to passenger ships, the infrastructure of society has to cope with ever more intense and complex flows of people. Today, more than ever, safety, efficiency and comfort are issues that must be addressed by all designers. The World Trade Centre disaster brought into tragic focus the need for well-designed evacuation systems. The new regulatory framework in the marine industry, acknowledges not only the importance of ensuring that the built environment is safe, but also the central role that evacuation simulation can play in achieving this.
An additional need is to design spaces for efficiency – ensuring that maximum throughput can be achieved during normal operations – and comfort – ensuring that the resulting flows offer little opportunity for needless queuing or excessive congestion. These complex demands challenge traditional prescriptive design guides and regulations. Designers and regulators are consequently turning to performance-based analysis and regulations facilitated by the new generation of people movement models.
Gender disparities persist in several areas of society, and scientific research is no exception. Differences between men and women in science appear in terms of productivity, speciality, collaboration and scientific impact (Larivière et al., 2013). Although the position of women in Western society has improved greatly in the last century, numerous studies confirm that gender disparities in science remain, including in the United States (Xie & Shauman, 2003), Québec (Larivière et al., 2011), Russia (Lewison & Markusova, 2011), Poland (Suchanska & Czerwosz, 2013), Italy (Abramo, D’Angelo & Caprasecca, 2009) and France (De Cheveigné, 2009). This study seeks to describe the evolution of the place of female researchers in Russia, taking into account the socioeconomic, political and historic context of the country, which was marked by the fall of the USSR in 1991.
This paper presents an analysis of the UK Technology Foresight Exercise from the Dialogue, Vision and Dissemination perspectives. Participation and dialogue-based visioning and policy making process was one of the key components of the Foresight exercise, which aimed at involving stakeholders to set priorities in the UK science base and industry. In this way, the stakeholders were given the opportunity to shape the S&T policies and strategies. The exercise helped in a great deal to the establishment of better links between the Government funded S&T and industry in a collective visioning process.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.