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Статья

A global look at time: A 24-country study of the equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory

Sage Open. 2014. Vol. 4.
Sircova A., van de Vijver F., Osin E. N., Milfont T. L., Fieulaine N., Kislali-Erginbilgic A., Zimbardo P.

In this article we assess the structural equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) across 26 samples from 24 countries (N = 12,200). The ZTPI is proven to be a valid and reliable index of individual differences in time perspective across five temporal categories: Past-Negative, Past-Positive, Present-Fatalistic, Present-Hedonistic, and Future. We obtained evidence for invariance of 36 items (out of 56) and also the five-factor structure of ZTPI across 23 countries. The short ZTPI scales are reliable for country-level analysis, whereas we recommend the use of the full scales for individual-level analysis. The short-version of ZTPI will further promote integration of research in the time perspective domain in relation to many different psycho-social processes.