The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)
This book brings together reviews by internationally renowed experts on quantum optics and photonics. It describes novel experiments at the limit of single photons, and presents advances in this emerging research area. It also includes reprints and historical descriptions of some of the first pioneering experiments at a single-photon level and nonlinear optics, performed before the inception of lasers and modern light detectors, often with the human eye serving as a single-photon detector. The book comprises 19 chapters, 10 of which describe modern quantum photonics results, including single-photon sources, direct measurement of the photon's spatial wave function, nonlinear interactions and non-classical light, nanophotonics for room-temperature single-photon sources, time-multiplexed methods for optical quantum information processing, the role of photon statistics in visual perception, light-by-light coherent control using metamaterials, nonlinear nanoplasmonics, nonlinear polarization optics, and ultrafast nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared.
This volume collects the referred papers based on plenary, invited, and oral talks, as well on the posters presented at the Third International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2018), which took place September 24-27, 2018 in Moscow. The Conference continues the tradition started by an inaugural conference in 2015. It took place on the campus of A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics in Strogino, was jointly organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics and Science Center in Chernogolovka.
The Conference is a multidisciplinary meeting, with a focus on computational physics and related subjects. Indeed, methods of computational physics prove useful in a broad spectrum of research in multiple branches of natural sciences, and this volume provides a sample.
We hope that this volume will interest readers, and we are already looking forward to the next conference in the series.
CSP2018 Conference Chair and Volume Editor
Computer simulations are nowadays a rmly established third pillar of modern natural sciences, complementing experimentation and paper-and-pencil theoret- ical studies. Simulations, experiments in silico, prove indispensable in diverse areas of research in physics and other natural sciences. This volume collects papers based on presentations delivered at the Sec- ond International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2017), which took place October 9-12, 2017 in Moscow. The Conference, which continues a biannual tradition started by an innaugural conference in 2015, took place on campus of A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, was jointly organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Insitute for Theoretical Physics and Science Center in Chernogolovka. As the name implies, the Conference is a multidisciplinary meeting, with a focus on computational physics and related subjects. Indeed, methods of computational physics prove useful in a broad spectrum of research in multiple branches of natural sciences, and this volume provides a sample. We hope that this volume will interest a wide range of readers, and we are already looking forward for the next conference in this biannual series.
This book highlights selected topics of standard and modern theory of accretion onto black holes and magnetized neutron stars. The structure of stationary standard discs and non-stationary viscous processes in accretion discs are discussed to the highest degree of accuracy analytic theory can provide, including relativistic effects in flat and warped discs around black holes. A special chapter is dedicated to a new theory of subsonic settling accretion onto a rotating magnetized neutron star. The book also describes supercritical accretion in quasars and its manifestation in lensing events. Several chapters cover the underlying physics of viscosity in astrophysical discs with some important aspects of turbulent viscosity generation. The book is aimed at specialists as well as graduate students interested in the field of theoretical astrophysics.
The present book gathers chapters from colleagues of A. Ezersky from Russia, especially those from Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science and from France, with whom he has been collaborating on experimental and theoretical developments. The book is subdivided into two parts. Part I contains eight chapters related to nonlinear water waves and Part II addresses in five chapters, patterns dynamics in nonequilibrium media. The contributions of Alexander B. Ezersky were valuable from both the experimental and the theoretical points of view. We thank all the authors for their contributions and the Springer Editor for having kindly accepted the edition of this book in memory of our colleague and friend, Prof. Alexander Borisovich Ezersky.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
These notes have appeared as a result of a one-term course in superfluidity and superconductivity given by the author to fourth-year undergraduate students and first-year graduate students of the Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Education. The goal was not to give a detailed picture of these two macroscopic quantum phenomena with an extensive coverage of the experimental background and all the modern developments, but rather to show how the knowledge of undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical physics could be used to discuss the basic concepts and simple problems, and draw parallels between superconductivity and superfluidity.
Superconductivity and superfluidity are two phenomena where quantum mechanics, typically constrained to the microscopic realm, shows itself on the macroscopic level. Conceptually and mathematically, these phenomena are related very closely, and some results obtained for one can, with a few modifications, be immediately carried over to the other. However, the student of these notes should be aware of important differences between superconductivity and superfluidity that stem mainly from two facts: (1) electrons in a superconductor carry a charge, therefore one has to take into account interaction with electromagnetic radiation; (2) electrons move in a lattice, therefore phonons play a role not only a mediators of attractive interaction between pairs of electrons, but also as scatterers of charge carriers.
Although these are notes on superfluidity and superconductivity, and there are a few cross-references, the two subjects can be studied independently with, perhaps, a little extra work by the student to fill in the gaps resulting from such study. The material of Chapter 1 introduces the method of second quantisation that is commonly used to discuss systems with many interacting particles. It is then applied in Chaper 2 to treat the uniform weakly interacting Bose gas within the approach by N. Bogoliubov, and in Chapter 4 to formulate the theory of the uniform superconducting state put forth by J. Bardeen, L. Cooper and R. Schrieffer. Chapter 3 presents the theory proposed independently by E. Gross and L. Pitaevskii of a non-uniform weakly interacting Bose gas, with a discussion of vortices, rotation of the condensate, and the Bogoliubov equations. In Chapter 5 we discuss the Ginzburd-Landau theory of a non-uniform superconductor near the critical temperature and apply it to a few simple problems such as the surface energy of the boundary between a normal metal and a superconductor, critical current and critical magnetic field, and vortices.
In this paper we present the studies of an ultrametric mathematical model for protein operation and give them physical interpretations that extend the conventional view of ensymatic activity regulation. The model is based on a representation of a multidimentional rugged energy landscapes by a hierarchy of nested basins of local minima and an approximation of protein dynamics with an ultrametric random walk. In contrast to an ordinary random walk, the ultrametric random walk is more suitable for describing of multiscale conformational dynamics and it is consistent with the kinetic features of ligand binding. Using our ultrametric model we show different ways to regulate enzymatic activity.
Superconducting properties of metallic nanowires can be entirely different from those of bulk superconductors because of the dominating role played by thermal and quantum fluctuations of the order parameter. For superconducting channels with diameters below ∼ 50 nm fluctuations of the phase of the complex order parameter - the phase slippage - lead to non-zero resistance below the critical temperature. Fluctuations of the modulus of the complex order parameter broaden the gap edge of the quasiparticle energy spectrum and modify the density of states. In extreme case of very narrow channels imbedded in high-impedance environment (which fix the charge and, hence, enable strong fluctuations of the quantum-conjugated variable, the phase) the superconductor can be driven to insulating state – the Coulomb blockade. We review recent experimental activities in the field demonstrating rather unusual phenomena.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The textbook is meant for students continuing to study English (levels B1-B2 according to the European Framework) and majoring in science. The exercises and tasks are aimed at developing speaking, writing and reading skills on the basis of authentic texts on the achievements of scientists rewarded the Nobel Prize in the years 2000-2014
Adequate assessment of individual functional motor potentials is important for developing appropriate rehabilitation strategies in ischemic stroke . Microstructural changes in corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) were repeatedly correlated to post-stroke outcome [2, 3]. However, relationship between them and functional recovery remains unclear. Here we investigated relationship between integrity of CST and CC assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and brain functional state assessed with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in chronic ischemic supratentorial stroke.
In this volume we have collected papers based on the presentations given at the International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2015), held in Moscow, September 6-10, 2015. We hope that this volume will be helpful and scientifically interesting for readers.
The Conference was organized for the first time with the common efforts of the Moscow Institute for Electronics and Mathematics (MIEM) of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, and the Science Center in Chernogolovka. The name of the Conference emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of computational physics. Its methods are applied to the broad range of current research in science and society. The choice of venue was motivated by the multidisciplinary character of the MIEM. It is a former independent university, which has recently become the part of the National Research University Higher School of Economics.
The development of terahertz imaging instruments for security systems is on the cutting edge of terahertz technology. We are developing a THz imaging system based on a superconducting integrated receiver (SIR). An SIR is a new type of heterodyne receiver based on an SIS mixer integrated with a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) and a harmonic mixer which is used for phase-locking the FFO. Employing an SIR in an imaging system means building an entirely new instrument with many advantages compared to traditional systems. In this project we propose a prototype THz imaging system using an 1 pixel SIR and 2D scanner. At a local oscillator frequency of 500 GHz the best noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of the SIR is 10 mK at an integration time of 1 s and a detection bandwidth of 4 GHz. The scanner consists of two rotating flat mirrors placed in front of the antenna consisting of a spherical primary reflector and an aspherical secondary reflector. The diameter of the primary reflector is 0.3 m. The operating frequency of the imaging system is 600 GHz, the frame rate is 0.1 FPS, the scanning area is 0.5 × 0.5 m2, the image resolution is 50 × 50 pixels, the distance from an object to the scanner was 3 m. We have obtained THz images with a spatial resolution of 8 mm and a NETD of less than 2 K.
IVEC was originally created in 2000 by merging the U.S. Power Tubes Conferences and the European Space Agency TWTA Workshops. Now a fully international conference, IVEC is held every other year in the U.S., and in Europe and Asia alternately every fourth year. After the successful and enjoyable meeting in Paris, France in May, IVEC 2014 will return to its beautiful U.S. location in the city of Monterey.
We discuss the effect of self-heating on performance of injection microdisk lasers operating in continuous-wave (CW) regime at room and elevated temperature. A model is developed that allows one to obtain analytical expressions for the peak optical power limited by the thermal rollover effect, the corresponding injection current and excess temperature of the device. The model predicts, there exists the maximum temperature of microlaser operation in CW regime and the minimum mircrodisk diameter, at which CW lasing is possible. The model allows one to determine the dependence of the device characteristics on its diameter and the inherent parameters, such as thermal resistance, electrical resistance, non-radiative recombination and characteristic temperature of the threshold current. It is found that a rapid growth of the threshold current density with decreasing the diameter (which takes place even in the absence of the self-heating effect) is the main internal reason leading to the dependence of the temperature characteristics of the mirodisk laser on its size. In the calculations, we used a set of parameters extracted from experiments with InGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers. The simulation results (in particular, the light-current curve and the dependence of the minimum microdisk diameter on ambient temperature) comply well with the measured dependences.
The increasing luminosities of future Large Hadron Collider runs and next generation of collider experiments will require an unprecedented amount of simulated events to be produced. Such large scale productions are extremely demanding in terms of computing resources. Thus new approaches to event generation and simulation of detector responses are needed. In LHCb, the accurate simulation of Cherenkov detectors takes a sizeable fraction of CPU time. An alternative approach is described here, when one generates high-level reconstructed observables using a generative neural network to bypass low level details. This network is trained to reproduce the particle species likelihood function values based on the track kinematic parameters and detector occupancy. The fast simulation is trained using real data samples collected by LHCb during run 2. We demonstrate that this approach provides high-fidelity results.
Thin current sheets (TCSs) with thicknesses about ion Larmor radii are widespread in space. It is important to describe their equilibrium structure allowing them to store and then explosively release the accumulated free energy. When ions are moving along quasi‐adiabatic trajectories while magnetized electrons follow guiding center drift orbits, TCSs can be described within the framework of a hybrid approach. The thickness of the embedded electron sheet remains uncertain because of the scale‐free character of electron motion. In this work, we propose a novel analytical model of the multilayer TCS that provides a universal expression describing the inner (embedded) electron sheet in dependence of TCS characteristics. An unusual property of the embedded electron layer revealed in this analysis is the nonlinear profile of the magnetic field in the inner layer: B(z) ~ z1/3, which conforms excellently with MAVEN observations of 43 TCSs in the Martian magnetotail.
We propose a new method to estimate sub-decadal to centennial time scales of sea-level change. Since the coastal data exhibit large spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability, the global sea-level rate is estimated as an appropriate average of the rates observed at available locations and computed with sliding windows. We claim that under such heterogeneity the median serves as a better representative of an adequate average than the mean. With this approach, the sea-level rate in 60 to 70 yr windows over the past century is found to be smaller than 1.7-1.9 mm/yr. These upper estimates are in line with those obtained with a scarce list of available long quasi-gapless series
A major challenge in the design of electrochemical biodevices is to achieve fast rates of electron exchange between proteins and electrodes. In this work, we show that a significant increase in the direct electron transfer rate between a graphite electrode and Tobacco Peroxidase takes place when a surface exposed leucine, located in the vicinity of the heme pocket, is replaced by tryptophan. The analysis of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) voltammetric responses of native and mutated proteins, as a function of solution pH and temperature, leads to similar values of the reduction entropy and reorganization energy, but to a higher electronic coupling in the case of the mutant. In addition, the mutated and native proteins are shown to display similar electrocatalytic activities to reduce hydrogen peroxide at positive potentials, indicating that the molecular structure of the heme pocket is largely unaffected by the mutation.
We consider the structure of a coherent vortex formed around a solid rotating disc in two-dimensional turbu- lent flow. We find the average velocity profile of the coherent vortex for different rotation velocities
A self-consistent model for the formation and evolution of dusty plasmas in the Martian ionosphere is developed. The effects of the initial distributions of dust particles, as well as condensation and absorption of carbon dioxide and water molecules by dust particles, are studied. Theory values of characteristic sizes of dust grains and their charges are obtained. The theoretical values of the sizes are in agreement with the data of observations. The possibility of the formation of dusty plasma structures in the Martian ionosphere which are analogous to noctilucent clouds in the atmosphere of the Earth is discussed.
We study dust vortices called dust devils and dynamics of dust in this structures. Dust devils are well formed relatively short-lived vortices that can appear over well heated surfaces like deserts and are clearly visible due to large amount of dust raised. Dust particles rotating in a flow bump and scrape each other and as a result particles obtain electric charges. Space separation of particles with opposite charges leads to generation of macroscopic electric field. We simulate dust dynamics with taking into account the electric field of the vortex.
The development of advanced electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage requires fine tuning of electrode reactions, which can be accomplished by altering the electrode/solution interface structure. Particularly, in case of an alkali-salt electrolyte the electric double layer (EDL) composition can be managed by introducing organic cations (e.g. room temperature ionic liquid cations) that may possess polar fragments. To explore this approach, we develop a theoretical model predicting the efficient replacement of simple (alkali) cations with dipolar (organic) ones within the EDL. For the typical values of the molecular dipole moment ($2-4~D$) the effect manifests itself at the surface charge densities higher than 30 $\mu C/cm^2$. We show that the predicted behavior of the system is in qualitative agreement with the molecular dynamics simulation results.