## Physics

We discuss the applicability of multiphase lattice Boltzmann method for the simulation of the drop oscillation. We demonstrate that the simulation of the single drop excited to the first eigenmode does follow Rayleigh formula. Simulations show no sensitivity to the number of the discrete velocities with D3Q19 and D3Q27 representations of the distribution function in three dimensions. The boundaries do influent the motion of the drop—division of the computational area by the even and the odd number of cells comes out important and leads to symmetry violence. The second part of the chapter describes the oscillations of the ensemble of three drops due to the excitation of the central drop in the first eigenmode. The motion of the backdrops does strongly depend on the viscosity of the fluid. We provide future details of simulations.

7th International School and Conference "Saint-Petersburg OPEN 2020" on Optoelectronics, Photonics, Engineering and Nanostructures was held on April 27 - 30, 2020. The Organizer of the conference is the Alferov Federal State Budgetary Institution of Higher Education and Science Saint Petersburg National Research Academic University of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Initially, the School and Conference was supposed to be held in full-time format at the Alferov Academic University (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), as it happened in the past. However, due to the restrictions imposed by the city authorities on holding mass events due to the threat of the spread of the COVID-19 infection, the conference committees decided to move the conference to the online format. The conference consisted of poster reports presented by the participants and online oral presentations by invited speakers. Posters and video reports of the participants were posted on the conference website. Invited speakers made their presentations online. During their speeches, participants could discuss and ask questions in the chat. The School and Conference included a series of invited talks given by leading professors with the aim to introduce young scientists with actual problems and major advances in physics and technology.

Proceedings of the SPIE PHOTONICS EUROPE Conference on Biophotonics in Point-of-Care, 6-10 April 2020, Online Only, France. Proc. SPIE volume 11361

The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)

This book brings together reviews by internationally renowed experts on quantum optics and photonics. It describes novel experiments at the limit of single photons, and presents advances in this emerging research area. It also includes reprints and historical descriptions of some of the first pioneering experiments at a single-photon level and nonlinear optics, performed before the inception of lasers and modern light detectors, often with the human eye serving as a single-photon detector. The book comprises 19 chapters, 10 of which describe modern quantum photonics results, including single-photon sources, direct measurement of the photon's spatial wave function, nonlinear interactions and non-classical light, nanophotonics for room-temperature single-photon sources, time-multiplexed methods for optical quantum information processing, the role of photon statistics in visual perception, light-by-light coherent control using metamaterials, nonlinear nanoplasmonics, nonlinear polarization optics, and ultrafast nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared.

This volume collects the referred papers based on plenary, invited, and oral talks, as well on the posters presented at the Third International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2018), which took place September 24-27, 2018 in Moscow. The Conference continues the tradition started by an inaugural conference in 2015. It took place on the campus of A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics in Strogino, was jointly organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics and Science Center in Chernogolovka.

The Conference is a multidisciplinary meeting, with a focus on computational physics and related subjects. Indeed, methods of computational physics prove useful in a broad spectrum of research in multiple branches of natural sciences, and this volume provides a sample.

We hope that this volume will interest readers, and we are already looking forward to the next conference in the series.

Moscow, Russia

November, 2018

CSP2018 Conference Chair and Volume Editor

Lev Shchur

In recent years, the physics community has experienced a revival of interest in spin effects in solid state systems. On one hand, the solid state systems, particularly, semiconductors and semiconductor nanosystems, allow us to perform benchtop studies of quantum and relativistic phenomena. On the other hand, this interest is supported by the prospects of realizing spin-based electronics, where the electron or nuclear spins may play a role of quantum or classical information carriers. This book looks in detail at the physics of interacting systems of electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors, with particular emphasis on low-dimensional structures. These two spin systems naturally appear in practically all widespread semiconductor compounds. The hyperfine interaction of the charge carriers and nuclear spins is particularly prominent in nanosystems due to the localization of the charge carriers, and gives rise to spin exchange between these two systems and a whole range of beautiful and complex physics of manybody and nonlinear systems. As a result, understanding of the intertwined spin systems of electrons and nuclei is crucial for in-depth studying and controlling the spin phenomena in semiconductors. The book addresses a number of the most prominent effects taking place in semiconductor nanosystems including hyperfine interaction, nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamical nuclear polarization, spin-Faraday and spin-Kerr effects, processes of electron spin decoherence and relaxation, effects of electron spin precession mode-locking and frequency focussing, as well as fluctuations of electron and nuclear spins.

Computer simulations are nowadays a rmly established third pillar of modern natural sciences, complementing experimentation and paper-and-pencil theoret- ical studies. Simulations, experiments in silico, prove indispensable in diverse areas of research in physics and other natural sciences. This volume collects papers based on presentations delivered at the Sec- ond International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2017), which took place October 9-12, 2017 in Moscow. The Conference, which continues a biannual tradition started by an innaugural conference in 2015, took place on campus of A.N. Tikhonov Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, was jointly organized by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Insitute for Theoretical Physics and Science Center in Chernogolovka. As the name implies, the Conference is a multidisciplinary meeting, with a focus on computational physics and related subjects. Indeed, methods of computational physics prove useful in a broad spectrum of research in multiple branches of natural sciences, and this volume provides a sample. We hope that this volume will interest a wide range of readers, and we are already looking forward for the next conference in this biannual series.

This book highlights selected topics of standard and modern theory of accretion onto black holes and magnetized neutron stars. The structure of stationary standard discs and non-stationary viscous processes in accretion discs are discussed to the highest degree of accuracy analytic theory can provide, including relativistic effects in flat and warped discs around black holes. A special chapter is dedicated to a new theory of subsonic settling accretion onto a rotating magnetized neutron star. The book also describes supercritical accretion in quasars and its manifestation in lensing events. Several chapters cover the underlying physics of viscosity in astrophysical discs with some important aspects of turbulent viscosity generation. The book is aimed at specialists as well as graduate students interested in the field of theoretical astrophysics.

The present book gathers chapters from colleagues of A. Ezersky from Russia, especially those from Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science and from France, with whom he has been collaborating on experimental and theoretical developments. The book is subdivided into two parts. Part I contains eight chapters related to nonlinear water waves and Part II addresses in five chapters, patterns dynamics in nonequilibrium media. The contributions of Alexander B. Ezersky were valuable from both the experimental and the theoretical points of view. We thank all the authors for their contributions and the Springer Editor for having kindly accepted the edition of this book in memory of our colleague and friend, Prof. Alexander Borisovich Ezersky.

The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.

The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.

It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.

These notes have appeared as a result of a one-term course in superfluidity and superconductivity given by the author to fourth-year undergraduate students and first-year graduate students of the Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Education. The goal was not to give a detailed picture of these two macroscopic quantum phenomena with an extensive coverage of the experimental background and all the modern developments, but rather to show how the knowledge of undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical physics could be used to discuss the basic concepts and simple problems, and draw parallels between superconductivity and superfluidity.

Superconductivity and superfluidity are two phenomena where quantum mechanics, typically constrained to the microscopic realm, shows itself on the macroscopic level. Conceptually and mathematically, these phenomena are related very closely, and some results obtained for one can, with a few modifications, be immediately carried over to the other. However, the student of these notes should be aware of important differences between superconductivity and superfluidity that stem mainly from two facts: (1) electrons in a superconductor carry a charge, therefore one has to take into account interaction with electromagnetic radiation; (2) electrons move in a lattice, therefore phonons play a role not only a mediators of attractive interaction between pairs of electrons, but also as scatterers of charge carriers.

Although these are notes on superfluidity *and *superconductivity, and there are a few cross-references, the two subjects can be studied independently with, perhaps, a little extra work by the student to fill in the gaps resulting from such study. The material of Chapter 1 introduces the method of second quantisation that is commonly used to discuss systems with many interacting particles. It is then applied in Chaper 2 to treat the uniform weakly interacting Bose gas within the approach by N. Bogoliubov, and in Chapter 4 to formulate the theory of the uniform superconducting state put forth by J. Bardeen, L. Cooper and R. Schrieffer. Chapter 3 presents the theory proposed independently by E. Gross and L. Pitaevskii of a non-uniform weakly interacting Bose gas, with a discussion of vortices, rotation of the condensate, and the Bogoliubov equations. In Chapter 5 we discuss the Ginzburd-Landau theory of a non-uniform superconductor near the critical temperature and apply it to a few simple problems such as the surface energy of the boundary between a normal metal and a superconductor, critical current and critical magnetic field, and vortices.

In this paper we present the studies of an ultrametric mathematical model for protein operation and give them physical interpretations that extend the conventional view of ensymatic activity regulation. The model is based on a representation of a multidimentional rugged energy landscapes by a hierarchy of nested basins of local minima and an approximation of protein dynamics with an ultrametric random walk. In contrast to an ordinary random walk, the ultrametric random walk is more suitable for describing of multiscale conformational dynamics and it is consistent with the kinetic features of ligand binding. Using our ultrametric model we show different ways to regulate enzymatic activity.

Superconducting properties of metallic nanowires can be entirely different from those of bulk superconductors because of the dominating role played by thermal and quantum fluctuations of the order parameter. For superconducting channels with diameters below ∼ 50 nm fluctuations of the phase of the complex order parameter - the phase slippage - lead to non-zero resistance below the critical temperature. Fluctuations of the modulus of the complex order parameter broaden the gap edge of the quasiparticle energy spectrum and modify the density of states. In extreme case of very narrow channels imbedded in high-impedance environment (which fix the charge and, hence, enable strong fluctuations of the quantum-conjugated variable, the phase) the superconductor can be driven to insulating state – the Coulomb blockade. We review recent experimental activities in the field demonstrating rather unusual phenomena.

The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.

It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.

The textbook is meant for students continuing to study English (levels B1-B2 according to the European Framework) and majoring in science. The exercises and tasks are aimed at developing speaking, writing and reading skills on the basis of authentic texts on the achievements of scientists rewarded the Nobel Prize in the years 2000-2014

Adequate assessment of individual functional motor potentials is important for developing appropriate rehabilitation strategies in ischemic stroke [1]. Microstructural changes in corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) were repeatedly correlated to post-stroke outcome [2, 3]. However, relationship between them and functional recovery remains unclear. Here we investigated relationship between integrity of CST and CC assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and brain functional state assessed with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in chronic ischemic supratentorial stroke.

In this volume we have collected papers based on the presentations given at the International Conference on Computer Simulations in Physics and beyond (CSP2015), held in Moscow, September 6-10, 2015. We hope that this volume will be helpful and scientifically interesting for readers.

The Conference was organized for the first time with the common efforts of the Moscow Institute for Electronics and Mathematics (MIEM) of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, and the Science Center in Chernogolovka. The name of the Conference emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of computational physics. Its methods are applied to the broad range of current research in science and society. The choice of venue was motivated by the multidisciplinary character of the MIEM. It is a former independent university, which has recently become the part of the National Research University Higher School of Economics.

Kinematic dynamo in incompressible isotropic turbulent flows with high magnetic Prandtl number is considered. The approach interpreting an arbitrary magnetic field distribution as a superposition of localized perturbations (blobs) is developed. We derive a general relation between stochastic properties of an isolated blob and a stochastically homogenous distribution of magnetic field advected by the same stochastic flow. This relation allows us to investigate the evolution of a localized blob at a late stage when its size exceeds the viscous scale. It is shown that in three-dimensional flows, the average magnetic field of the blob increases exponentially in the inertial range of turbulence, as opposed to the late-batchelor stage when it decreases. Our approach reveals the mechanism of dynamo generation in the inertial range both for blobs and homogenous contributions. It explains the absence of dynamo in the two-dimensional case and its efficiency in three dimensions. We propose a way to observe the mechanism in numerical simulations

We consider the nanoscale electronic phase separation in a wide class of different materials, mostly in strongly correlated electron systems. The phase separation turns out to be quite ubiquitous manifesting itself in different situations, where the itineracy of charge carriers competes with their tendency toward localization. The latter is often related to some specific type of magnetic ordering, e.g. antiferromagnetic in manganites and low-spin states in cobaltites. The interplay between the localization induced lowering of potential energy and metallicity (which provides the gain in the kinetic energy) favors an inhomogeneous ground state such as nanoscale ferromagnetic droplets in an antiferromagnetic insulating background. The present review article deals with the advances in the subject of electronic phase separation and formation of different types of nanoscale ferromagnetic (FM) metallic droplets (FM polarons or ferrons) in antiferromagnetically ordered (AFM), charge-ordered (CO), or orbitally-ordered (OO) insulating matrices, as well as the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect and tunneling electron transport in the nonmetallic phase-separated state of complex magnetic oxides. It also touches upon the compounds with spin-state transitions, inhomogeneous phase separated state in strongly correlated multiband systems, and electron polaron effect. A special, attention is paid to the systems with the imperfect Fermi surface nesting such as chromium alloys, iron-based pnictides, and AA stacked graphene bilayers.

High energy physics experiments rely heavily on the detailed detector simulation models in many tasks. Running these detailed models typically requires a notable amount of the computing time available to the experiments. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach to speed up the simulation of the Time Projection Chamber tracker of the MPD experiment at the NICA accelerator complex. Our method is based on a Generative Adversarial Network – a deep learning technique allowing for implicit estimation of the population distribution for a given set of objects. This approach lets us learn and then sample from the distribution of raw detector responses, conditioned on the parameters of the charged particle tracks. To evaluate the quality of the proposed model, we integrate a prototype into the MPD software stack and demonstrate that it produces high-quality events similar to the detailed simulator, with a speed-up of at least an order of magnitude. The prototype is trained on the responses from the inner part of the detector and, once expanded to the full detector, should be ready for use in physics tasks.

We study kink oscillations of a straight magnetic tube in the presence of siphon flows. The tube consists of a core and a transitional or boundary layer. The flow velocity is parallel to the tube axis, has constant magnitude, and confined in the tube core. The plasma density is constant in the tube core and it monotonically decreases in the transitional layer to its value in the surrounding plasma. We use the expression for the decrement/increment previously obtained by Ruderman and Petrukhin (Astron. Astrophys. 631, A31, 2019) to study the damping and resonant instability of kink oscillations. We show that, depending on the magnitude of siphon-velocity, resonant absorption can cause either the damping of kink oscillations or their enhancement. There are two threshold velocities: When the flow velocity is below the first threshold velocity, kink oscillations damp. When the flow velocity is above the second threshold velocity, the kink oscillation amplitudes grow. Finally, when the flow velocity is between the two threshold velocities, the oscillation amplitudes do not change. We apply the theoretical result to kink oscillations of prominence threads. We show that, for particular values of thread parameters, resonant instability can excite these kink oscillations

The effect of spherical SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in the electrode layer of PEDOT:PSS on the efficiency of organic solar cells (OSC) based on small molecules was studied in detail. We show that embedding SiO2 NPs of 50 nm in diameter increases the power conversion efficiency (PCE) by 15%, and this increase weakly depends on the NPs concentration in the buffer layer. Also, we calculated the interaction of radiation with a model three-layer system (ITO, buffer layer, active layer) with embedded NPs in buffer layer and analyzed the directional patterns of spherical SiO2 NPs of various sizes in such a three-layer system. The calculation results allow interpreting the experimental results on increasing the PCE as a result of light scattering by the NPs.

Using the path integral approach, we obtain the characteristic functions of the gyration radius distributions for Gaussian star and Gaussian rosette macromolecules. We derive the analytical expressions for cumulants of both distributions. Applying the steepest descent method, we estimate the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the gyration radius in the limit of a large number of star and rosette arms in two limiting regimes: for strongly expanded and strongly collapsed macromolecules. We show that in both cases, in the regime of a large gyration radius relative to its mean-square value, the PDFs can be described by the Gaussian functions. In the shrunk macromolecule regime, both distribution functions tend to zero faster than any power of the gyration radius. Based on the asymptotic behavior of the distribution functions and the behavior of statistical dispersions, we demonstrate that the PDF for the rosette is more densely localized near its maximum than that for the star polymer. We construct the interpolation formula for the gyration radius distribution of the Gaussian star macromolecule which can help to take into account the conformational entropy of the flexible star macromolecules within the Flory-type mean-field theories.

We propose a method to control a bilayer superconducting spin valve (SSV) which does not perturb its superconducting state and is suitable for energy saving cryogenic electronics. This SSV consists of a superconducting layer and a helimagnetic layer of B20 family compounds, namely, Nb and spiral antiferromagnet MnSi. Thanks to unique properties of MnSi—broken inversion symmetry and cubic crystal lattice — there are a few ground state magnetic configurations with different directions of the magnetic spiral, divided by a potential barrier. Superconductivity in such a bilayer is controlled by the reorientation of the spiral vector in the MnSi layer, which leads to a change in the critical temperature of the Nb layer due to the proximity effect. The switching is proposed to be carried out by a several hundred ps in duration magnetic field pulse of several kOe in magnitude. Such a pulse does not destroy the superconducting state of the Nb layer by itself but leads to the excitation of magnons in the MnSi layer, which triggers the reorientation process of the magnetic spiral. After the completion of this process, the Nb layer switches into a normal state. Inverse switching returns the spiral to the initial state, opening the valve and turning on the superconducting state. The system can be switched there and back by a magnetic field of opposite signs along one direction in the layers plane, which allows an easy control. The switching time is estimated as several nanoseconds, which coincides with the scales of the STT-MRAM recording time.

In this paper, we study the transformation of surface envelope solitons traveling over a bottom step in water of a finite depth. Using the transformation coefficients earlier derived in the linear approximation, we find the parameters of transmitted pulses and subsequent evolution of the pulses in the course of propagation. Relying on the weakly nonlinear theory, the analytic formulas are derived which describe the maximum attainable wave amplitude in the neighborhood of the step and in the far zone. Solitary waves may be greatly amplified (within the weakly nonlinear theory formally, even without a limit) when propagating from relatively shallow water to the deeper domain due to the constructive interference between the newly emerging envelope solitons and the residual quasi-linear waves. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the data of direct numerical modeling of soliton transformation. In particular, more than double wave amplification is demonstrated in the performed simulations.

A general scenario for an N-sequential conclusive state discrimination introduced recently in Loubenets and Namkung [arXiv:2102.04747] can provide a multipartite quantum communication realizable in the presence of a noise. In the present article, we propose a new experimental scheme for the implementation of a sequential conclusive discrimination between binary coherent states via indirect measurements within the Jaynes-Cummings interaction model. We nd that if the mean photon number is less than 1.6, then, for our two-sequential state discrimination scheme, the optimal success probability is larger than the one presented in Fields, Varga, and Bergou [2020, IEEE Int. Conf. Quant. Eng. Comp.]. We also show that, if the mean photon number is almost equal to 1.2, then the optimal success probability nearly approaches the Helstrom bound.