Kina Rutul Spatial Adverbs and Postpositions
In Bagvalal (East Caucasian), native place names show strongly reduced morphological inflection. They combine with spatial suffixes identical to those used on nouns and spatial adverbs and with attributive and plural suffixes identical to those of nominal genitive and plural and thus have mixed adverbial nominal morphology. Place names are unmarked in spatial function but marked in argument position. To occur in the latter, they require a nominal head with an abstract meaning such as ‘village’ or ‘place’. Bagvalal place names are syntactically adverbs rather than nouns. Considering syntax and morphology together, they constitute a morphosyntactic class intermediate between nouns and adverbs. Mixed properties of Bagvalal place names are functionally motivated. Place names are, first of all, locations (hence spatial inflection), but also territories associated with specific ethnic and sub-ethnic groups (hence attributive and plural inflection). I conclude by briefly reviewing evidence from some other East Caucasian languages, to show that Bagvalal is not an exception.
The paper considers morphology, morphosyntax and semantics of causative formation in Agul, a Lezgic language of Southern Daghestan (Russia). In Agul, the two most frequent causative patterns, periphrastic and compound causatives, apparently share one source of grammaticalization. The former are combinations of ‘do’ with the infinitive of the lexical verb, while the latter put them together as two bound stems. However, semantically 'do'-compounds belong with non-productive causatives (labile verbs and lexical causatives) and are opposed to fully productive periphrastic causatives. All non-productive causatives – only available for intransitive verbs – have parallel periphrastic ‘do’-causatives, the distinction between the parallel forms conveys the semantic contrast of direct vs. indirect causation. The paper makes an attempt at decomposing these typological categories into simpler components (intentionality, physical interaction, event structure), and provides a detailed semantic analysis of labile verbs and semantically irregular causatives. Periphrastic causatives are peculiar in their own way: they may introduce locative or ergative Causee, the choice depending on the degree of the Causee's control over the caused situation. Basing on this morphosyntactic variability, we argue that periphrastic causatives are intermediate between bi- and monoclausal constructions.
The goal of this paper is to analyze and reassess the criteria according to which a class of postpositions is distinguished in the Beserman dialect of Udmurt. This class is traditionally divided into inflected and non-inflected postpositions. Analysis of syntactic and morphosyntactic properties of these two subclasses shows that items traditionally labeled as inflected postpositions form a homogeneous group and show noun-like behavior in most cases, while non-inflected postpositions are heterogeneous. Based on this analysis, we propose to single out a part-of-speech class of relational nouns and show that the rest of the postpositions could be further divided into subclasses with different behavior. The study is based on the data obtained during fieldwork in 2009–2015 in Udmurtia (for Beserman) and on corpus data (for literary Udmurt).
This paper reports the results of a phonological study of stress in the Dargic branch of East Caucasian (Nakh–Daghestanian) languages. The main part of this issue is based on Xuduc, Qunqi, and Tanti (three Dargic varieties). Evidently in all Dargic languages, except the North varieties, stress is meaningful. Its position in the absolutive form depends on the word structure (in a different way in different varieties). In the other forms some of the morphological markers are usually stressed (e. g. all plural form markers) and some – are only stressed in words with a certain root declination type.
The paper enters the controversy between different approaches to East Caucasian relativization. In one analysis, East Caucasian relativization is constrained only by the semantic and pragmatic frame of the situation. However, our analysis of the data shows a divergence between corpus data on relativization that can only be explained in syntactic terms: Udi reflexivization prefers A over P, and Archi relativization prefers P over A. We suggest that Udi the reason of this asymmetry is that Udi morphosyntax might have been strongly influenced by the contacting accusative languages such as Azerbaijani and Armenian.
The book is devoted to qualifying parts of speech: adjective and adverb.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.