Migration of Russian settlers and the legacy of inter-regional development in Kazakhstan
Although there were many revolutions in the ancient world and in the Middle Ages, their role in the development of historical process was relatively small. Starting from the Modern period, the role of revolutions as historical engines increased dramatically, which was connected with the started industrial era and emerging new technologies, the development of capitalist relations, to which the revolutions opened the way in the fight against absolutism and obsolete social relations. The article considers the role of revolutions in the long-term historical process and the World System's development as well as analyzes the changing importance of revolutions from ancient times to the present day. It is shown why the nature of revolutions has changed and their significance has sharply increased since the beginning of the sixteenth century, that is with the started Early Modern period and the Industrial revolution. It is also shown that at first the role of revolutions increased in historical process and in globalization as one of its main components. Then the author explains how and why the role of revolutions as the most important driving force of historical process and progress started to decline against the background of the increasing role of more legitimate and less expensive forms of societal transformations. The contemporary role of revolutions and their usage as a geopolitical weapon are also examined. I also show the correlation between development of technologies, globalization, and the role of revolution in historical process. While considering these aspects I also address some points related to the theory of revolution and make some predictions regarding the future role of revolutions for the development of societies and the World System in general.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.