Tolerance-Based vs. Cost-Based Branching for the Asymmetric Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem
In this paper, we consider the asymmetric capacitated vehicle routing problem (ACVRP). We compare the search tree size and computational time for the bottleneck tolerance-based and cost-based branching rules within a branch-and-bound algorithm on the FTV benchmark instances. Our computational experiments show that the tolerance-based branching rule reduces the search tree size by 45 times and the CPU time by 2.8 times in average.
This paper examines correlations between the genetic characteristics of human populations and their aggregate levels of tolerance and happiness. A metadata analysis of genetic polymorphisms supports the interpretation that a major cause of the systematic clustering of genetic characteristics may be climatic conditions linked with relatively high or low levels of parasite vulnerability. This led vulnerable populations to develop gene pools conducive to avoidance of strangers, while less-vulnerable populations developed gene pools linked with lower levels of avoidance. This, in turn, helped shape distinctive cultures and subsequent economic development. Survey evidence from 48 countries included in the World Values Survey suggests that a combination of cultural, economic and genetic factors has made some societies more tolerant of outsiders and more predisposed to accept gender equality than others. These relatively tolerant societies also tend to be happier, partly because tolerance creates a less stressful social environment. Though economic development tends to make all societies more tolerant and open to gender equality and even somewhat happier, these findings suggest that cross-national differences in how readily these changes are accepted, may reflect genetically-linked cultural differences.
Structured monograph on the subjects of tolerance and intercultural understanding - scientific foundations, the organization process, specific ways and methods.
We present an approach based on a two-stage ltration of the set of feasible solutions for the multiprocessor job-shop scheduling problem. On the rst stage we use extensive dominance relations, whereas on the second stage we use lower bounds. We show that several lower bounds can eciently be obtained and implemented.
The article examines special politically-legal and social status of Muslim community in the USA. Not only positive experience of ethnopolitical integration is described, but also a number of problems connected to this situation.