Длинные циклы и экономическое развитие в XIX—XX вв.
Императора Александра I, несомненно, можно назвать самой загадочной и противоречивой фигурой среди русских государей XIX столетия. Республиканец по убеждениям, он четверть века занимал российский престол. Победитель Наполеона и освободитель Европы, он вошел в историю как Александр Благословенный - однако современники, а позднее историки и писатели обвиняли его в слабости, лицемерии и других пороках, недостойных монарха. Таинственны, наконец, обстоятельства его ухода из жизни. О загадке императора Александра рассказывает в своей книге известный писатель и публицист Александр Архангельский.
This paper puts forth a comprehensive set of measures to address the current economic crisis, prevent its further aggravation and ensure sustained and ongoing development of the Russian economy. In this study we seek to adopt the viewpoint of common sense and keep free from political and ideological bias. This is why we believe the proposed solutions should be implemented by any reasonable government irrespective of its political coloration. This text presents our vision of the Russian economy and its problems.
In this paper we study convergence among Russian regions. We find that while there was no convergence in 1990s, the situation changed dramatically in 2000s. While interregional GDP per capita gaps still persist, the differentials in incomes and wages decreased substantially. We show that fiscal redistribution did not play a major role in convergence. We therefore try to understand the phenomenon of recent convergence using panel data on the interregional reallocation of capital and labor. We find that capital market in Russian regions is integrated in a sense that local investment does not depend on local savings. We also show that economic growth and financial development has substantially decreased the barriers to labor mobility. We find that in 1990s many poor Russian regions were in a poverty trap: potential workers wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these barriers were no longer binding. Overall economic development allowed even poorest Russian regions to grow out of the poverty traps. This resulted in convergence in Russian labor market; the interregional gaps in incomes, wages and unemployment rates are now below those in Europe. The results imply that economic growth and development of financial and real estate markets eventually result in interregional convergence.
Task: currently interest in the study of historical aspects related to the formation of various legal institutions is increased. The least explored issues in the development of international law and international private law, including the article presents historical and legal analysis of the process of legal registration system of international relations in private law sphere, including with the direct participation of the Russian state.
Model: the study of historical and legal analysis of the process of formation of private international law in the Imperial period with the participation of the Russian state, based on primary sources: international legal instruments (treaties) concluded by Russia with different States for a specified period of time and acts of internal legislation regulating the corresponding sphere, and also the scientific works devoted to the study of relevant issues.
Conclusions: the Conducted historical and legal analysis, identified the main issues which have been subject to legal regulation in the international private law of the relevant period and identifies trends associated with the process of formation of private international law, describes the legal consolidation of the relevant provisions of the international treaties concluded by various, mainly European States as well as the ratio of provisions of international law acts of the Russian legislation.
Frameworks of research/possibility of subsequent use of results of scientific work: the study is limited to the time frame and scope of private international law that can be extended from the point of view of the chronological framework and areas of cooperation.
Social consequences: In systematic form, with links to primary sources, describes the process of becoming legal registration of interstate relations in the field of private law within a specified period of time, which makes a contribution to the study of the history of international law in General, including relevant political and legal processes.
Originality/value – the work can be used to study the history of state and law, private international law and other Sciences.