Инновации на обычном предприятии
The research of companies’ territorial strategies allows to specify the entrepreneurs logic of territories choice for the investment by eliminating from the analysis the offshore capital, to reveal the differences in regional strategies of companies in various branches of the economy, to identify the company preferences in territories for different activities, to assess the attractiveness for foreign investors not only regions, but also different types of settlements (all of these tasks cannot be solved on the basis of statistical data). The paper analyzes the location of regional divisions of different types (production, logistics, sales, research, management) of 50 largest foreign companies operating in Russia (Forbes rating). The author confirms the compliance of this location with the existing theoretical ideas about the companies’ territorial strategies, including the importance of key economic centers, hierarchical and wave diffusion, neighborhood effect. The paper shows the differences in investments’ attracting in different types of cities (including the role of million-plus cities in the location of companies distribution centers and research units, small towns in attracting industrial enterprises, the second-third cities of regions in the development of the retail trade), in the wideness of the geography of companies activities in different industries (including the presence of minimum territorial barriers in the food industry and mono-brand retail trade, especially cars), the importance of proximity to Moscow. The article highlights Russian Federation subjects with the maximum degree of allocation of foreign companies.
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
At the present level of development the information and knowledge become important engines of global economic growth and key elements of national strate-gy for increasing country’s competitiveness in the international market. The article is aimed to analyze two monitoring systems of innovation capacity (ICT Development Index and Networked Readiness Index) as the indicators of development of knowledge economy and information society.