PISA и политика
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. It was first performed in 2000 and then repeated every three years. It is done with view to improving education policies and outcomes. The data has increasingly been used both to assess the impact of education quality on incomes and growth and for understanding what causes differences in achievement across nations.
According to the international study of the reading literacy PIRLS, graduates of the Russian primary school are ready to study by means of texts. The PISA test shows a low level of readiness of 15-16 year old students to use texts for a wide range of tasks. In this regard, it is important to understand what happens with reading literacy at the beginning of the general school. In order to study the dynamics of reading literacy, a diagnostic technique was created. The article presents data on the reading literacy of pupils of grades 4 and 5, estimated with the help of this technique. It is shown that the year of study in the general school does not change anything in the ability of schoolchildren to understand information texts. These results show that reading texts does not contribute to the increase in the reading skills of the 5th grade students; therefore, they pose the problem of working on reading literacy in the teaching process in grades 5-6.
The authors estimate contribution of different factors in reading skills of 15?year-olds by using four models of multilevel regression analysis. It turned out that the most significant factor is family background — not only at the individual level, but at the school level as well (average school socio-economic status of schoolchildren families effects average reading skills). At the school level the aggregated family characteristics of students affect individual achievements, and this effect surpasses an effect of school resources and localization of schools — those school factors that show a significant contribution to achievement. Attitudes toward reading and learning are significant at the individual level, but at the school level children’s attitudes toward reading and school don’t make an independent contribution to the individual results.
Using a natural experiment situation, this chapter describes the process of curriculum reform in Russian-medium schools in Latvia and Estonia. The research question focuses on whether those curriculum reforms were successful from the perspective of schools’ interiorisation of new curriculum and PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) performance improvement. Using the three-layered curriculum approach (intended, implemented and attained curriculum), this chapter analyses how the intentions of the laws and other reform-related documents were implemented in everyday school practice and are reflected in attained educational results. To address this issue, a series of in-depth interviews in Russian-medium schools, in conjunction with the PISA 2003 2012 trends analysis, were conducted. The results showed that intended and attained curricula have grown closer in both countries. Schools actively implement proposed reforms in teaching, and PISA performance has been constantly improving, showing that the attained curriculum is approaching what was intended, though this process is different in the two countries.
On the basis of PISA-2009 materials: Reading literacy The efficiency of one year of study was explored on the basis of PISA-2009 (reading) materials in seven countries: Russia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, Canada and Brazil. An instrumental variable was used, which enabled to assess the effect of one year of study by the nonstrict method of regression discontinuity. The analysis included both general educational programs and vocational educational programs together and comprehensive schools separately. It is found that in Russia the efficiency of one year of study is insignificant to all programs’ students. In the countries where early division into general educational and vocational programs is practised, the efficiency of studying is lower than in the countries where all pupils of 15 years old learn a general educational program. For general educational programs’ students the efficiency of studying is significant in all countries. Compared to the general educational trajectory, low efficiency is typical of vocational programs’ students. The way a family’s socio-economic status and efficiency of school education are interrelated and how much they are interrelated depends a lot on an educational system and vary widely by country. In Russia, as well as in some other countries, efficiency of studying does not depend on pupils’ socio-economic indices. The importance of the results obtained for assessment of efficiency of studying is discussed, and particularly for fair assessment of national achievements in countries with different sets of educational trajectories.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an influential worldwide study that tests the skills and knowledge in mathematics, reading, and science of 15-yearold students. In this paper, we show that PISA scores of individual students can be predicted from their digital traces. We use data from the nationwide Russian panel study that tracks 4,400 participants of PISA and includes information about their activity on a popular social networking site. We build a simple model that predicts PISA scores based on students’ subscriptions to various public pages on the social network. The resulting model can successfully discriminate between low- and high-performing students (AUC = 0.9). We find that top-performing students are interested in pages related to science and art, while pages preferred by low-performing students typically concern humor and horoscopes. The difference in academic performance between subscribers to such public pages could be equivalent to several years of formal schooling, indicating the presence of a strong digital divide. The ability to predict academic outcomes of students from their digital traces might unlock the potential of social media data for large-scale education research.
The quality of education in the United States has been heavily criticized in part because of U.S. students’ performance on international tests, such as the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Although simple country averages may support such criticisms, there are many problems in comparing test scores of students in the U.S. as a whole with students in countries with very different social and educational environments. Not least of these problems is that students in the United States do not attend school in a “U.S. educational system,” but rather in at least 51 different systems, many of which have experienced very significant progress over time. The most relevant lessons for improving U.S. education may therefore be found in our successful states, rather than in other countries.
In 2012 the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), for the first time in the history of large-scale assessments, included a new type of problems called “interactive problems”. This article will analyze the problems. The research area behind it is the psychology of complex problem solving in a complex multi-factor environment which involves search, experimenting and control in conditions of uncertainty. The article discusses the new opportunities that open up and the problems that arise in introducing such problems in large-scale assessment practice, with particular focus on the problem of standard assessment of creative problems. It looks at the growing importance of studies into exploratory behavior and “experimentation with experimentation” and their impact on education policy.
Full text (Russian): Poddiakov, A. (2012). Reshenie kompleksnykh problem v PISA-2012 i PISA-2015: vzaimodeistvie so slozhnoi real'nost'yu [Complex Problem Solving at PISA 2012 and PISA 2015: Interaction with Complex Reality]. Obrazovatel'naya Politika, 6, 34-53. http://edupolicy.ru/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Poddjakov-No.6.2012.pdf
Full text (English translation): Poddiakov, A. (2012). Complex Problem Solving at PISA 2012 and PISA 2015: Interaction with Complex Reality]. Obrazovatel'naya Politika, 6, 34-53. https://www.hse.ru/data/2013/11/24/1337084180/cps-in-pisa.docx