The article deals with apocalyptic motifs in the ideas, attitudes and values of two outstanding Spanish Catholic philosophers - Jaime Luciano Balmes (1810-1848) and Juan Donoso Cortes (1809-1853). Standing in the 1830-1840s. to protect the Ancient regime Balmes and Donoso were in the political camp defeated in the struggle with the liberal bourgeoisie, engaged in creating a New order. As a result, today they are on the periphery of social and political thought. However, their philosophical and political diagnoses remain a part of relevance to this day. Correlating Balmes and Donoso from the views of their main opponents - the French Enlightenment of the XVIII century and the British and French positivists of the XIX century, - we will be able to put the problem of the "end of history" in the universal - the general historical - context.
The book enters into a circle of the problems connected with crisis of modern European culture. Relying on experience of the Russian philosophy of the Silver age (V. Solovyov, L. Shestov, S. Frank, N. Berdyaev, P. Florensky), the author investigates the reasons of spiritual and cultural shocks of our time. He sees manifestations of the radical antinomies of the European spirit penetrating all spheres in external signs of crisis, - from daily occurrence to the bases of modern science.
References to the problem of the End of History are not infrequent in various political, cultural and philosophic discussions. This notion is often postulated as something quite apparent or as something of great influence and which nevertheless both are attemted to be refuted. The purpose of the paper is to follow philosophic roots of this conception and observe conditions and stages in its development.
There were two equivalent geniuses in the history of nineteenth centuries thought, the period when all main meanings of Russian mentality were being organized and reflections about possible destiny of Russia in the context of world history were being established. Their names are Konstantin Leontiev and Vladimir Solovyov. The both have their backgrounds in Slavyanofil's ideas, which both thinkers had overcome in their own unique way. Despite the fact, that they have had completely different points of views, Leontiev was fascinated by Solovyov. Solovyov and Leontiev were trying to create their own historiosophical projects, which were destined to change the course of the history. Both philosophers were called utopists, but actually they didn’t think about the utopism of their projects. They had chosen the different ways, but at the end they had come to the same conclusion: the world history is closed to its own end, and the most important thing for every person is to find his own place in the oncoming eschatological crisis.
The volume contains papers by Russian and Italian scholars devoted to the role of Christian texts in the cultural history of mediaval Europe and pre-Petrine Rus. Various aspects of Christian culure are dicussed, such as veneration of saints, eschatological prophecies, ideals of monastic life et al.
The article deals with the recent discussion in the field of the Septuagint scholarship (mainly between A. Pietersma and M. Rösel) on the meaning of the expression εἰς τὸ τέλος in the superscriptions of the Greek Psalter. In the Hebrew Psalter superscriptions like this were mostly either performance directions, or directions with instrumentation, using specific musical terminology. The Septuagint translators were obviously unfamiliar with this terminology, which resulted in a series of rather enigmatic renderings. The Fathers of the Greek church read some of the superscriptions of the Greek Psalter (including εἰς τὸ τέλος) from an eschatological perspective. Was this the meaning intended by the translators themselves? Or should we treat this eschatological interpretation as a later phenomenon irrelative to what the translators themselves thought? Analysis of how the word τέλος was used both in the Septuagint and in the literature of the Hellenistic Judaism speaks rather against the suggestion that the eschatological interpretation was intended by the translators themselves.