Джон Локк, Лоренс Стерн и метафоры сознания в философской психологии XVIII века
Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason aims to determine boundaries of reason. Reason is a
faculty of the soul. But Kant does not deal explicitly with the question what a faculty of the soul itself may be. The dissertation construes Kant’s implicit notion of a mental faculty in relation to psychological debates in 17th and 18th century Germany. It can be shown that Kant agreed with Christian August Crusius in that faculties are real properties, an assumption that was denied by Christian Wolff. This poses a problem which is fundamental for understanding Kant’s project: How can we have knowledge of mental faculties at all? If knowledge of faculties was empirical for Kant, it would belong to psychology rather than to epistemology which, according to Kant, must not rely on empirical facts. In order to find out whether there can be knowledge a priori about mental faculties, the book provides a close reading of relevant passages from published texts and other sources (lecture transcripts, Reflexionen). The final result is negative: Kant has no conclusive argument for the real existence of mental faculties. Nevertheless, an awareness of Kant’s unwritten “metaphysics of the mental” is essential for understanding implicit premisses of Kant’s thought.
The paper contextualises the philosophy of Adam Smith and analyses the pre-history of political economy as being in large parts determined by notions of patriarchalism, i. e. the notion that the role of a head of state is analogous to the head of a private household. It is shown how this notion migrates from political philosophy proper (Bodin, Hobbes) into mercantilist discourses and that it is a fundamental part of Locke's economic theory. Adam Smith denies the validity of this analogy: his cosmopolitanism, his views on the divison of labour, and his arguments against interventionism are all directed against patriarchalist misunderstandings of the relationship between the economy and the state.
This paper is divided into three parts: it first gives an historical analysis of the legal concept of 'no man's land' (in Latin: terra nullius) and its role in legal and theological controversies surrounding the colonisation of the Americas. It then goes on to show how these Hispanic debates form the basis for Locke's views in the matter. Finally, it addresses the question to which extent Locke's erroneous presumptions still shape contemporary legal discourse. To this end, the 1992 landmark decision of the Australian High Court in Mabo v Queensland is analysed in depth. Even though the court was right in rescinding the concept of terra nullius, the judges were insufficiently aware of its colonial roots.
The collective monograph, «Langage, pensée et esprit» ("Language, mind and spirit") published in French, presents the outcome of an international research project conducted during the years 2012-2015 by an international group of experts in contemporary philosophy of language and Wittgenstein scholars. The co-authors represent the following universities: University of Bergen, Norway; Université Paris-8 Vincennes Saint-Denis, France; National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia; and Université de Tunis. The monograph examines diverse aspects of L. Wittgenstein's philosophy of language that are of considerable importance for today's philosophy of mind and for the epistemology of contemporary social sciences.
The philosophical and cultural roots of psychology. Traditions in Europe, India, and China
Die Autorinnen und Autoren dieses Buchs richten ihren Fokus auf Traditionslinien der Psychologie, die eine enge Verbindung zur Philosophie und den Geisteswissenschaften aufweisen. Es werden »vergessene«, kaum berücksichtigte psychologische Theorien behandelt und aus philosophischer und kulturpsychologischer Sicht aufgearbeitet und diskutiert. Durch das Neulesen alter Texte werden Alternativen zum gegenwärtigen Mainstream in der Psychologie, der sich überwiegend an den Neurowissenschaften orientiert, entwickelt. Neben der europäischen Psychologie des 19. Jahrhunderts werden auch chinesische und indische Denktraditionen betrachtet: Die AutorInnen dieser Beiträge beschäftigen sich mit dem Buddhismus und Hinduismus, dem Daoismus sowie der chinesischen Kulturpsychologie. Mit Beiträgen von Lars Allolio-Näcke, Gerhard Benetka, Horst-Peter Brauns, Jagna Brudzińska, Pradeep Chakkarath, Maximilian Forschner, Gerlinde Gild, Margret Kaiser-el-Safti, Marcus Knaup, Nadia Moro, Ralph Sichler, Doris Weidemann, Hans Werbik, Uwe Wolfradt und Peter Zekert