Social Desirability in Positive Psychology: Bias or Desirable Sociality?
Positive Psychology has become a major approach to the scientific study of individual, social, community and cultural processes. This book includes a selection of papers presented at the 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, organized in Braga at the University of Minho, Portugal in 2006. The title of the book reflects its main purpose and a main concern for positive psychology - Understanding Positive Life - balanced between the two scientific pillars, the research and the practice. Several contributions concerning theory, research and practice are presented in three different parts: Happiness, Well-being and Life Satisfaction (Part I); Performance, Coping and Quality of life (Part II); and assessment, Intervention and Practice for a Positive Life (Part III). Each part includes eight chapters, with a great diversity of authors coming from different countries.
The authors discuss the differences between time management programs and time perspective coaching and explore the possibilities of applying Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the coaching process. Based on the analysis of an individual time perspective profile, the coach may choose from a range of interventions suggested in this chapter. Specific interventions focused on overcoming the drawbacks of past-negative and present-fatalistic outlooks on time, as well as fostering the advantages of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive time perspectives are presented together with questions aimed to help clients in gaining a better understanding and new insights in each of the time perspective domains. A separate section discusses the potential of mindfulness interventions in fostering balanced time perspective.
In this chapter we oserve the evidence of personal potential at organizational context. We supposed the personal potential lets employees to build their careers, be efficient and satisfied, hold stresses and empotional burn-out, obtain persona and organizational goals, build organizational relations and keep the meaningfullness of their work.
The considerable growth in the number of smart mobile devices with a fast Internet connection provides new challenges for survey researchers. In this article, I compare the data quality between two survey modes: self-administered web surveys conducted via personal computer and those conducted via mobile phones. Data quality is compared based on five indicators: (a) completion rates, (b) response order effects, (c) social desirability, (d) non-substantive responses, and (e) length of open answers. I hypothesized that mobile web surveys would result in lower completion rates, stronger response order effects, and less elaborate answers to open-ended questions. No difference was expected in the level of reporting in sensitive items and in the rate of non-substantive responses. To test the assumptions, an experiment with two survey modes was conducted using a volunteer online access panel in Russia. As expected, mobile web was associated with a lower completion rate, shorter length of open answers, and similar level of socially undesirable and non-substantive responses. However, no stronger primacy effects in mobile web survey mode were found.