Social Desirability in Positive Psychology: Bias or Desirable Sociality?
Positive Psychology has become a major approach to the scientific study of individual, social, community and cultural processes. This book includes a selection of papers presented at the 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, organized in Braga at the University of Minho, Portugal in 2006. The title of the book reflects its main purpose and a main concern for positive psychology - Understanding Positive Life - balanced between the two scientific pillars, the research and the practice. Several contributions concerning theory, research and practice are presented in three different parts: Happiness, Well-being and Life Satisfaction (Part I); Performance, Coping and Quality of life (Part II); and assessment, Intervention and Practice for a Positive Life (Part III). Each part includes eight chapters, with a great diversity of authors coming from different countries.
The authors discuss the differences between time management programs and time perspective coaching and explore the possibilities of applying Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the coaching process. Based on the analysis of an individual time perspective profile, the coach may choose from a range of interventions suggested in this chapter. Specific interventions focused on overcoming the drawbacks of past-negative and present-fatalistic outlooks on time, as well as fostering the advantages of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive time perspectives are presented together with questions aimed to help clients in gaining a better understanding and new insights in each of the time perspective domains. A separate section discusses the potential of mindfulness interventions in fostering balanced time perspective.
In this chapter we oserve the evidence of personal potential at organizational context. We supposed the personal potential lets employees to build their careers, be efficient and satisfied, hold stresses and empotional burn-out, obtain persona and organizational goals, build organizational relations and keep the meaningfullness of their work.
The paper presents a theoretical reconstruction of Lev Vygotsky’s project of theory of personality development and highlights Vygotsky’s relevance and heuristic value for the personality psychology of our days, especially positive psychology. The authors focus on several aspects of Vygotsky’s heritage. 1. General concept of personality within a non-classical framework. 2. The idea of self-mastery as the central explanatory concept and its relation to the modern concept of agency. 3. The role of self-reflective awareness in personality development. 4. Personality development pathways in challenging conditions. In Vygotsky’s works personality was implicitly constructed as the most integral higher mental function, while self-mastery or self-regulation was its central feature. Vygotsky’s principle of mediation states that the structure of human activity is mediated by physical or mental tools that break the S—R links and make it possible to master one’s own behavior and mental processes. By utilizing speech as a system of signs that enables the process of mastering the psychosocial reality, self-reflection makes a new basis for more complicated forms of higher mental processes that possesses more degrees of freedom as compared with the lower ones. The law of compensation is discussed in the context of aggravated conditions of personality development, where personality answers on the social boundaries, and thus achieves alternative trajectories of development. The sociocultural paradigm is thus consistent with modern thought of positive and personality psychology.