Дейксис и коммуникация: Язык как средство формирования виртуальной реальности
Human communication is basically the exchange of information. How can this be realized? Each communicant proceeds from a subjective perception of an objective reality; however in order to exchange information relating to this reality communicants are obliged to coordinate their perceptions. Each of us entertains personal experiences based on individual impressions and associations. But communication presupposes the presence of a common experience and the possibility of the coordination of subjective perceptions. It is presumed that communicants share common experiences: this seems to be the natural premise of communication.
How is this possible? How can I be certain, for example, that my interlocutor understands the words in the same way I do? How can we correlate our understanding? It seems obvious that the necessary condition of communication is an agreement between the communicants. But how can this agreement be reached? Where is the initial point of the coordination of individual experience of different persons?
The present book deals with this and related questions. Special attention is given to the role of deixis in the process of communication and to the mechanisms of linguistic comprehension.
In the contemporary world where social media became one of the key sources of information about offline reality, a rally can be performed without even leaving your house. That is why the discussion participants and the audience reflect on the problem of ‘authenticity' of the virtual reality and political actions it provides. The users ponder the question whether virtual activism is relevant, what conditions make virtual political action ‘real' and ‘accomplished', i.e. they try to define the status of virtual reality and the boundaries between the ‘real' and the ‘virtual', the ‘original idea' (in E. Goffman's words) and the ‘falsifi cation'. This reframing results in a redef inition of what activists, city inhabitants and lawenforcementbodies considerto be a ‘political action'. The article considers how the perceptions of social media activism change and to what conflicts those changes can lead.
This article analyses the semantics and syntactic behaviour of the Old High German and Old Saxon pronominal adverb thâr (“there”), the morphological status of which is often equated with the status of the West Germanic relative particle *þe in relative clauses. OS thâr has a syntactic autonomy and a consistent deictic role in the opposition with hêr (“here”), whereas OHG thâr shows a partial loss of its deictic role in relative clauses, a growing syntactic dependence and the formation of a complex structure in conjunction with the relative pronoun. These changes are interpreted as a change from a discourse element to a sentence element and as the beginnings of grammaticalisation in the direction ‘main word’ > ‘auxiliary word’.