Ego loquens. Язык и коммуникационное пространство
Human communication is basically the exchange of information. How can this be realized? Each communicant proceeds from a subjective perception of an objective reality; however in order to exchange information relating to this reality communicants are obliged to coordinate their perceptions. Each of us entertains personal experiences based on individual impressions and associations. But communication presupposes the presence of a common experience and the possibility of the coordination of subjective perceptions. It is presumed that communicants share common experiences: this seems to be the natural premise of communication.
How is this possible? How can I be certain, for example, that my interlocutor understands the words in the same way I do? How can we correlate our understanding? It seems obvious that the necessary condition of communication is an agreement between the communicants. But how can this agreement be reached? Where is the initial point of the coordination of individual experience of different persons?
The present book deals with this and related questions. Special attention is given to the role of deixis in the process of communication and to the mechanisms of linguistic comprehension.
The focus of the article is on the category of conflict in a scientific text and its translation. The work «Metaphors we live by» by G.Lakoff and M.Johnson is taken as a source for the analysis.
The article presents the history of the Longman dictionary that has become a bestseller all over the world. Revealing the translation of the lexicographic idea into practice, the author tells us about the scholarly disputes that accompanied the development of the principles of a new type of English dictionary.
The paper presents a project aimed at the development of a Russian Learner Parallel Corpus, discusses the existing analogues, describes the current status and the tasks in which it could be used. The existing parallel corpora contain (comparatively) “correct” translations; whereas the aim of the present project is to create a sufficiently large corpus of imperfectly translated Russian and English texts together with their sources and use it as a tool for translation studies, especially those related to translation mistakes. The new corpus will be a valuable resource for computational linguistics as it provides another way of getting data for evaluation which could be used to improve machine translation systems. As of now, the corpus is available on-line, it already contains nearly half a million word tokens and is growing. The main source of material is translations made by student translators in Russian universities.
The introduction describes the concept in the "hard"and "soft" sciences.
Nested Petri nets (NP-nets) are Petri nets with net tokens - an extension of high-level Petri nets for modeling active objects, mobility and dynamics in distributed systems. In this paper we present an algorithm for translating two-level NP-nets into behaviorally equivalent Colored Petri nets with the view of applying CPN methods and tools for nested Petri nets analysis. We prove, that the proposed translation preserves dynamic semantics in terms of bisimulation equivalence.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.