Множественная релятивизация: подлинная и мнимая
The topic of this article has to do with the types of interaction between prefixes and suffixes in the morphological structure and semantic interpretation of the extremely complex polysynthetic Adyghe verbal form. As we show, the relationships between the elements of the different parts of the verbal form are both non-trivial and heterogeneous, which suggests that affix interaction can be an important parameter of morphological complexity in languages.
The cases of interaction between prefixes and suffixes vary in three parameters: 1) the direction of restriction (from suffix to prefix or the other way around); 2) semantic relations between suffix and prefix; 3) range of restriction (suffix and prefix impossible without each other; possible, but with an idiomatic meaning, and so on).
Restrictions of the Adyghe type can be an important criterion for grammatical semantics and morphology, since they show which meanings and to which extent are conceptualized as close to each other by the language system.
This paper discusses the morphological and syntactic means of expression of participants in morphology and syntax of West Circassian (Adyghe) focusing on the argument vs adjunct characteristics of these means. West Circassian provide evidence for the non-discretness of the argument/adjunct contrast but also shows the necessity to distinguish between argument/adjunct properties in morphological expressions and in syntactic expressions.
The volume is a collection of articles concerned with the typology of valency and valency change in a large and diversified sample of languages that display ergative alignment in their grammar. The sampof languages represented in these descriptive contributions covers most of the geographical areas and linguistic families in which ergativity has been known to exist jointly with well-developed morphological voice, and some languages belonging to families in which ergativity or voice were not previously recognized or adequately described up to now.
This book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of grammatical relations and argument structure in the languages of Europe and North and Central Asia (LENCA). Topics covered with respect to individual languages are: split-intransitivity (Basque), causativization (Agul), transitives and causatives (Korean and Japanese), aspectual domain and quantification (Finnish and Udmurt), head-marking principles (Athabaskan languages), and pragmatics (Eastern Khanty and Xibe). Typology of argument-structure properties of ‘give’ (LENCA), typology of agreement systems, asymmetry in argument structure, typology of the Amdo Sprachbund, spatial realtors (Northeastern Turkic), core argument patterns (languages of Northern California), and typology of grammatical relations (LENCA) are the topics of articles based on cross-linguistic data. The broad empirical sweep and the fine-tuned theoretical analysis highlight the central role of argument structure and grammatical relations with respect to a plethora of linguistic phenomena.
In this volume, the issue of recursion is tackled from a variety of angles. Some article cover formal issues regarding the proper characterization or definition of recursion, while others focus on empirical matters by examining the kinds of structures in languages that suggest recursive mechanisms in the grammar. Most articles deal with syntactic phenomena, but several involve morphology, the lexicon and phonology. In addition, we find discussions of evolutionary notions and language disorders, and the broader cognitive context of recursion.
The paper presents a description and a discussion of adnominal possessive constructions in Tanti Dargwa, a Northeast Caucasian language spoken in Daghestan. While at first glance these constructions look quite typical for the family, on a closer inspection it turns out that they display at least two typologically non-trivial phenomena. First, Tanti Dargwa manifests a dedicated construction referring to the "annulated" possessive relation (like my forme house). Second, the language shows a specific pattern whereby the possessum may take the noun class of the possessor and control agreement in accordance to this assignment.
The paper surveys various approaches to polysynthetic languages and demonstrates that the criteria for characterizing a language as a polysynthetic one are either not clear or only hold for some of the polysynthetic languages. It is argued that polysynthetic languages do not constitute a homogeneous class, yet the idea of polysynthesis may reflect certain diachronic processes.