Hate Speech Litigation in Russia
The OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Yearbook is the only independent academic publication dedicated to the OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, its work, and the issues that concern it. This Yearbook contains a wealth of writing from experts and practitioners relating to various aspects of freedom of the media.
Formation of democratic societies of the Western type presupposes appearance on the historical scene of a new strong actor - the bourgeois class: "No bourgeoisie, no democracy" (Barrington Moore). The articulation and defense of vital interests of that class creates a new social space - "the bourgeois public sphere" which helps to make up "counterbalance" to absolutism of a corporate state - a civil society, the core of which is composed by public opinion. In the confrontation between the authorities and society one of the most important roles is played by the press that provides free debate and discussion of generally valid problems, especially economic and political. The recognition of the mass media role was stamped in its characterization in XIII century as "the fourth power". Technological development of the media incredibly expanded its functions, turning journalists into creating informational analogue of reality, saturating daily life with new meanings. Methods of the representation of reality, the specific nature of political influence of journalists - key members of the reflexive elites (Helmut Shelski), are the themes of this article.
Публичная сфера, журналистика, четвертая власть, порядки знания, Повседневность, научное и повседневное знание, экспертиза, Репрезентация, public sphere, journalism, fourth estate, orders of knowledge, Everyday life, scientific and everyday knowledge, Expertise, representation
The legal concept and legislative regulation of the principle of prohibition of discrimination is beeng analysed . We also discuss changes of Russian legislation aimed to strengthen protection against discrimination during applying for jobs and disseminating of information with discriminatory requirement concerning vacancies. The article analyses the effectiveness of these provisions .
The author considers the term «compensative expertise» and its role in successful language mastering.