Что мы знаем о том, что было до пайдейи? (Предисловие к книге)
Scholarly discussions concerning the audience of St. Basil’s Ad adolescentes are normally centered on the question whether St. Basil addresses himself to his nephews. However, unlike his friend St. Gregory of Nazianz, Basil is very reserved when it comes to his family, and not much information can be gained from his writings on this point. Due to the lack of biographical evidence, further specification of the audience could proceed by means of comparison with two other writings created around the same time, in the same Roman province, and dedicated to the same subject. The texts in question are St. Gregory’s Carmina ΙΙ. 2. 4 and ΙΙ. 2. 5 and Amphilochius’s Iambi ad Seleucum. We suggest that in all the three cases the authors and their addressees find themselves in similar situations, and attempt to reconstruct these situations on the basis of prosopographical material and other evidence.
Aeschylus’ “Persae” is obviously the first case of massed invasion of a foreign language stuff into Greek. There are lots of Persian / Iranian words and personal names in ”Persae”, but we try to pay our special attention to only one of them: ¡brob£tai (verse 1073), which to the Greek mind would mean “soft-stepping”. In the context of Aeschylus’ tragedy, the epithet seems somewhat strange, because Xerxes himself applies it to Persian high officials and aldermen. This word was the subject of a special research by R. SCHMITT (1975), who refused to recognise its Persian / Iranian prototype and resumed the ancient scholiast’s claim: “to interpret Aeschylus from Aeschylus”. We do agree with this claim, but at the same time we suppose that there is some “Iranian” element which shines forth through the apparently Greek word-form ¡brob£tai. Our hypothesis is rather simple: Greek ¡brob£thj corresponds to Persian *apara-pati, that is, “younger/ lower ruler”, which, in its turn, could have been a title of high-rank courtier. On the other hand, Aeschylus intentionally fills his tragedy with words beginning on (h)abro-. While ¡brosÚnh was a feature of Ionian aristocratic style of life, the names of Persian princes slain at Thermopyles were hellenized in Greek tradition as Abrokomes (Aparakama?) and Hyperanthes (Hubaranta?). It makes part of Aeschylus’ conscious strategy of transposing the Greek-Persian “Sprachkrieg” into civil conflict between aristocracy and democracy in Greece itself. That is to say, foreign words, such as ¡brob£tai, served Aeschylus as a shell covering his own ideas and as a means of creating “tragic ambiguity”.
is paper is concerned with Heidegger’s esoteric notion of philosophy developed during his Rektorat-period (1933–1934) in accordance with the Platonic model of community described in the Politeia. e principal hypothesis is that Heidegger’s notion of philosophy as the knowledge of the truth and as a specific educational program was conceived as an exclusive and elitist one; it allows Heidegger to distance himself from the public sphere and criticize any form of public discourse as resulting from the improper mode of being. In this paper the first part of the lecture "Vom Wesen der Wahrheit" (1933–34) is discussed where Heidegger interprets Plato’s allegory of the cave and presents the “German revolution” as a unique event which provides an opportunity to integrate decisively politics with philosophy. e paper also explores Hannah Arendt’s arguments against the esoteric notion of philosophy and politics in her essay "Philosophy and politics" (1990).