This article deals with compensation theory, according to which humans in modern culture need to compensate modernization and rationalization processes to construct their identity. As a result, the tendency to the conserve and re-actualize its historical origins is a characteristic feature of modern culture.
The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive analysis of the American social policy for the Vietnam War veterans. This paper includes three parts: description of protest movements and the struggle for the recognition of the Vietnam War veterans status; studying the problems and consequences of war syndrome; expertise of American legislation within the context of the Vietnam veterans social protection. The recognition of the PTSD as the illness allowed using rehabilitation programs for more effective integrating former combatants into a peaceful social environment. Measures of the combatants social support in the United States based on the implementation programs of preferential maintenance of educational needs, group life insurance, medical rehabilitation, not only owing of injuries, but also in connection with the effects of herbicides. In the USA active work is conducted on carrying out of such programs as assistance in finding co-soldiers, housing for homeless veterans of the Vietnam War, rehabilitation after returning from correctional institutions, the use of round-the-clock telephone hotline.
In this article, we discuss the main theoretical approaches to the interpretation of migration biographies and distinguish the main motives and factors of spatial movements. We also analyze the relationship between migration movements and social mobility. In addition, considerable attention is given to key methodological approaches to the analysis of migration and migration biographies. In particular, we examine the biographical method to reconstruct the trajectory of the migration of the individual throughout his or her life. Also highlighted, in particular, is the use of advanced methods of statistical analysis – event history analysis and sequence analysis – which take a considerable amount of time and require ample creativity in preparing data.
In this article, a comparative analysis of the subjective social status of formal and informal labor market participants will be used in order to investigate possible differences in their socioeconomic status. Subjective social status approach was introduced in social stratification research and since then numerous empirical studies revealed significant connection between individual’s perceptions about own place in a society and his or her behavior in various spheres (from labor market behavior to consumption, physical, and mental health), relationship with other people.
In theory, a poverty line can be defined as the cost of a common (inter-personally comparable) utility level across a population. But how can one know if this holds in practice? For groups sharing common consumption needs but facing different prices, the theory of revealed preference can be used to derive testable implications of utility consistency knowing only the "poverty bundles" and their prices. Heterogeneity in needs calls for extra information. We argue that subjective welfare data offer a credible means of testing utility consistency across different needs groups. A case study of Russia's official poverty lines shows how revealed preference tests can be used in conjunction with qualitative information on needs heterogeneity. The results lead us to question the utility consistency of Russia's official poverty lines.
This book presents a comprehensive theory of why human freedom gave way to increasing oppression since the invention of states – and why this trend began to reverse itself more recently, leading to a rapid expansion of universal freedoms and democracy. Drawing on a massive body of evidence, the author tests various explanations of the rise of freedom, providing convincing support of a well-reasoned theory of emancipation. The study demonstrates multiple trends toward human empowerment, which converge to give people control over their lives. Most important among these trends is the spread of 'emancipative values', which emphasize free choice and equal opportunities. The author identifies the desire for emancipation as the origin of the human empowerment trend and shows when and why this desire grows strong; why it is the source of democracy; and how it vitalizes civil society, feeds humanitarian norms, enhances happiness, and helps redirect modern civilization toward sustainable development.