Роль философии в актуалистской образовательной концепции Джованни Джентиле
The focus of this report lies on an aspect of Giovanni Gentile’s (1875 - 1944) educational theory based on the philosophy of actual idealism – the attention paid to the teaching of philosophy in school. In the thought of Gentile philosophy is the highest form of spiritual activity and its study should be obligatory. According to Gentile’s concept, based on his actual idealist philosophy and realized during his period in power (while he was the Minister of Public Education in Benito Mussolini’s Fascist government in 1922 – 1924), the study of philosophy became obligatory in the middle school. In the middle school program philosophy took the place of the study of religion, which was obligatory in primary school. What was, according to Gentile, the qualitative difference of philosophy from other forms of knowledge? Why the study of philosophy should begin in the teen age? How was this concept based on the philosophical theory of actual idealism?