РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ И ЭВОЛЮЦИЯ: МОДЕЛИ РАЗВИТИЯ В НАУКЕ, КУЛЬТУРЕ, ОБЩЕСТВЕ
Today, computer simulations are used in numerous research practices of experimentation, prediction and the construction of theories. For a short historical period, the use of computer simulations influenced the philosophy and methodology of a scientific experiment, which, however, is only now beginning to be realized by philosophers and is considered by them as the source or factor of the emergence of a new epistemological pattern of experimentation through the adoption of ontological independence of computer simulations. Despite the ongoing, in the author's opinion, transformations in the philosophy of the experiment, stimulated by practitioners of computer simulations, a consensus on their basic characteristics has not yet been found. There is a lack of clear technical boundaries in the understanding and definition of computer simulations of scientific experiments. Discussions about the primary epistemological significance of one of the four experiment's types (field, laboratory, computer simulation, mathematical modeling) on the criterion of their relationship with the material substrate of the target system the experiment (materiality argument) do not abate. Despite the significant contribution of computer simulations to the practice of modern scientific research and experimentation, discussions continue about the presence or absence of their philosophical significance, including their value as a source of new knowledge. The author of the report will try to identify the main directions in the development of the concept computer simulations of scientific experiments in order to establish the causes of contemporary philosophical discussions and ambiguous view problems, as well as determine the degree of significance the transcendental foundations in computer simulations that can transform the modern philosophy of science. For this, the author chooses an original classification of approaches to the formulation the concept under study, which is a dichotomy formed in the course of a controversy between two groups of philosophers, so classified due to directly opposite views on computer simulations, in terms of their value to philosophy.
The focus of this report lies on an aspect of Giovanni Gentile’s (1875 - 1944) educational theory based on the philosophy of actual idealism – the attention paid to the teaching of philosophy in school. In the thought of Gentile philosophy is the highest form of spiritual activity and its study should be obligatory. According to Gentile’s concept, based on his actual idealist philosophy and realized during his period in power (while he was the Minister of Public Education in Benito Mussolini’s Fascist government in 1922 – 1924), the study of philosophy became obligatory in the middle school. In the middle school program philosophy took the place of the study of religion, which was obligatory in primary school. What was, according to Gentile, the qualitative difference of philosophy from other forms of knowledge? Why the study of philosophy should begin in the teen age? How was this concept based on the philosophical theory of actual idealism?