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  • Magnus labor est, quia non sum liber: формы натуральных, отработочных и денежных повинностей в Западной Европе VI-IX вв. (по материалам законодательных источников)

Book chapter

Magnus labor est, quia non sum liber: формы натуральных, отработочных и денежных повинностей в Западной Европе VI-IX вв. (по материалам законодательных источников)

С. 86-104.

The author deals with the issues of the variety, systematization and evolution of definitions concerning different forms of taxation and obligations (census, tribute, corvée etc.) in early medieval Europe. Author pays his special interest to late ancient and early medieval legal sources (known as leges barbarorum) as well as to some historical sources (namely The History of the Franks written by Gregory of Tours and Chronicles of Fredegar), Frankish legal formulas of the 6th-8th centuries, Carolingian capitularies and polyptychs of the 9th century. The evidence of the imperial landsurveys of the 4th and 5th centuries confirms universal character of taxation (census and tributum) in late Roman Gaul and Spain. The revival of this tradition attempted by Frankish kings Chlothar I and Childebert II wasn’t such successful as in Visigothic Spain in the 6th century but prevented the total destruction of the system of taxation of Roman and Germanic population before the end of the 7th century. Nevertheless the simplification of rural economy and the growth of monastic estates as well as royal and private land possessions in Western Europe in the 8th and early 9th centuries led to the diminution of freedom and peasant tenures and to the increase of number of their payments and obligations (e.g. most of formerly payable taxes were replaced with food supply, personal services and corvée).