Хага Яити и его «Десять этюдов о национальном характере»
In the late XIX - early XX centuries we see active search for the national characteristics of the Japanese. This article analyzes the book of the famous expert of Japanese literature Haga Yaichi (1867-1927) “Ten Essays on National Character” (1907). This book was controversial with regard to the work of Kishimoto Nobuta "Five Features of the Japanese" (1902) who was a Christian. A number of similarities are observed in these works (they value highly cleanliness of the Japanese, their cheerfulness and activity, ability to adapt borrowings, the sense of beauty, politeness and etiquette behavior). However, there are radical differences, too. For Kishimoto “The Japanese” was an independent entity, and Haga viewed the Japanese in its relation to the state and as its function. Kishimoto talked about the character of the peaceful Japanese, and Haga Yaichi interpreted the peculiarities of the national character primarily from the point of the readiness for war and death for the emperor and the motherland. Kishimoto's writing was not popular and was well forgotten. As for the views of Haga Yaichi, they were adopted by propaganda institutions and became one of the main sources for “Kokutai no Hongi”, the fundamental text of Japanese totalitarianism.