Art and Design Education in Russia
Historically, Russian art and design education has always been closest to the fine arts. It was a system that trained masters of visual, decorative, applied, and industrial arts as well as architects, teachers of fine arts, and fine arts historians. Official opinion on art education in Russia, as expressed by the consensus of the professionals in defining it as a phenomenon, is reflected in a number of encyclopedias. Various encyclopedias – by publishing houses such as Brockhaus, Efron, and Granat – have been published in Russia during different historical periods, including the “big” and “small” Soviet encyclopedias. In modern Russia, a project called the Big Soviet Encyclopedia has been launched, but because of a lack of time it has not yet been fully developed. The account in this chapter is based on the account of art history in Russia offered by the Big Soviet Encyclopedia and in other works that contain historical data about the development of educational institutions during these periods. Art education has been closely linked with the transformation of Russian artistic culture. The structure and contents of today’s art education emerged over a number of historical periods, each of which made a unique contribution based on its cultural context.