Сепарация от родительской семьи и удовлетворенность жизнью женщин с разным брачным статусом
The empirical study of the relationship of psychological separation from the parents with life satisfaction was performed with the participation of 375 middle-aged women with different marital status. It is proved that women who are married, more positively perceive themselves and their lives, their separation from parents is experienced by them as less conflict. Harmonious separation from parents is directly related to marital satisfaction. A woman’s separation from parents is differently related to her life satisfaction depending on her marital status. The most harmonious separation from parents is observed at women in remarriages.
We examined relations of 10 personal values to life satisfaction (LS) and depressive affect (DEP) in representative samples from 32/25 countries (N = 121 495). We tested hypotheses both for direct relations and cross-level moderation of relations by Cultural Egalitarianism. We based hypotheses on the growth versus self-protection orientation and person-focus versus social-focus motivations that underlie values. As predicted, openness to change values (growth/person) correlated positively with subjective well-being (SWB: higher LS, lower DEP) and conservation values (self-protection/social) correlated negatively with SWB. The combination of underlying motivations also explained more complex direct relations of self-transcendence and self-enhancement values with SWB. We combined an analysis of the environmental context in societies low versus high in Cultural Egalitarianism with the implications of pursuing person-focused versus social-focused values to predict how Cultural Egalitarianism moderates value–SWB relations. As predicted, under low versus high Cultural Egalitarianism, (i) openness to change values related more positively to SWB, (ii) conservation values more negatively, (iii) self-enhancement values less negatively and (iv) self-transcendence values less positively. Culture moderated value–SWB relations more weakly for DEP than for LS. Culture moderated value–LS relations more strongly than the socio-economic context did. This study demonstrates how the cultural context shapes individual-level associations between values and SWB.
Summarizing the results of different researches on intercultural interaction, we can state that people feel tension in intercultural contacts when they perceive the situation as threatening their well-being. There are also many empirical evidences that people belonging to different cultures understand well-being in different ways. This understanding depends also on social, economic and other factors. Thereby it is important to study general relationships of subjective well-being and intercultural tolerance and cultural specifics of these relationships. Objectives of the empirical study was to analyze the satisfaction with life as an important factor of cross-cultural interaction; to reveal cultural specifics of modern representations of subjective well-being, and interrelations of the styles of intercultural interaction with subjective well-being in different cultures. Methods: Scales of: Psychological well-being (Ryff), Life Satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin), Subjective Happiness (Lyubomirsky & Lepper), General Communicative Tolerance (Boiko) and Ethnic Identity Types (Soldatova, Ryzhova), Student’s T-test, Spearman's rank correlation. Sample: 330 persons (18-55 years old) of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey, all the participants had lived in Russia for some (not less than 3) years, all of them lived in some biggest Russian cities.Results: It was discovered, that people’s satisfaction with their lives directly relates to general and intercultural tolerance. People, more satisfied with their lives, are usually better control their negative emotions, adapt to changing situations, forgive others’ mistakes. Such people admit their and others’ ethnicity and more rarely exhibit extremism in inter-ethnic relations, although they often avoid contact with other ethnic groups. Cross-cultural differences in well-being were revealed among residents of modern Russian big cities. In particular, people belonging to the Jewish religion, were significantly more satisfied with their lives than all the others were. People brought up in the Orthodox culture, were the least satisfied. In many subjective well-being indicators, representatives of the Buddhist and Muslim cultures showed quite good results. Different statistically significant connections between subjective well-being and tolerance were revealed in cultural subgroups. For example, for people belonging to Jewish religion, general tolerance is associated mostly with meaningfulness of life and openness to the world; and ethnic tolerance is associated to environmental mastery and personal growth. For Buddhists meaningfulness of life positively correlates with general and ethnic tolerance, and personal growth correlates only with ethnic tolerance. Muslims showed the similar results, but besides – the correlations of both types of tolerance with ppurposefulness and overall mood tone. For Orthodox Christians, both types of tolerance is mostly related to positive relations with others and overall level of subjective well-being. Conclusions: the life satisfaction and subjective well-being are important factors of intercultural interactions. There are common and culturally specific mechanisms of these factors interaction. In psychological support of cross-cultural interaction it is important to take into consideration cultural differences in well-being understanding and its relations with general and intercultural tolerance.
The objectives of the study were to reveal cultural specifics of modern life values and subjective well-being, individual and cultural values interrelations, life values and subjective well-being correlations at Russian residents, belonging to different religions. The main methods were Scales of: Value Orientations Actual Structure (Bubnova), Psychological well-being (Ryff), Life Satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin), Subjective Happiness (Lyubomirsky & Lepper), Student’s T-test, Spearman's rank correlation. The sample consisted of 330 persons (18-55 years old) of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey all the participants had lived in Russia for some (not less than 3) years. For each studied religious groups their dominant life values were revealed. It was discovered, that people of different cultures associate their well-being and lives satisfaction with different life values. However, in general, life satisfaction correlates with those values, which are less important for certain culture. Perhaps, persons, oriented on traditional and culturally important values are less happy than those, who are oriented for their individual ones. May be in assessing realization of individual values people use their own criteria, which are not as strict as criteria of common cultural values’ realization. The results of this study allow us to draw the following conclusions. Significant cross-cultural differences in life-values and subjective well-being have their sources in religious attitudes and settings. People of different cultures associate their well-being and lives satisfaction with different values. Generally, well-being and life satisfaction are directly related to the values, less important in certain culture.
Increase welfare and the fight against the informal employment are the equivalent tasks for the state policy. But is there a contradiction in these goals? Does the gray market decrease social tensions? Subjective well-being can be considered to answer this question. This paper discusses the relation between unregistered employment and life satisfaction.
We present a series of studies aimed at the development and the validation of a new Russian-language instrument measuring existential fulfilment based on the hierarchical structure of the 4 existential fundamental motivations developed by A. Längle. Based on phenomenological descriptions and focus groups, we created a 94-item set. The structural validation study used 2 online samples (N = 818 and N = 215). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, expert-rating procedure, and confirmatory factor analysis with cross-validation we arrived at a hierarchically structured set of 36 items grouped into 4 scales (forming a general index of existential fulfilment) and 12 subscales corresponding to theoretical prerequisites of fundamental motivations. The scales demonstrated acceptable reliability (α in the .79-.88 range, .93 for the general score). In 3 samples (N = 658, N = 215, N = 105) we sought evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of TEM against measures of well-being (emotional, social, and psychological well-being, subjective happiness, satisfaction with life), basic psychological need satisfaction, self-esteem, psychopathology (anxiety, depression, alienation), and the Big Five traits using correlation and regression analyses. Two other studies explored the associations of existential fulfilment with other demographic and psychological variables (gender, age, self-control, reflexive processes) in a large sample (N = 3766) and investigated TEM scores in individuals with binge eating disorder (N = 193). The findings show the convergent validity of existential fulfilment indicators against well-being measures based on different theoretical approaches, as well as discriminant and criterion validity of existential fundamental motivation scales. We also discuss the psychometric challenges associated with existential concepts and propose approaches to their solution.