Взаимосвязь способности к осознанному присутствию (mindfulness) и личностной рефлексии
The focus of the study is the relationship between personality development and mechanisms of self-reflection and inner dialogue. Our understanding is based on J. Loevinger’s (1976) theory of ego development stages and D. Leontiev’s (2009) differential self-reflection model. 262 participants of student summer school in Russia (age from 14 to 25 (M=20.03, SD=3.92) were tested on a battery of measurement scales, including: (1). Modified P. Oles’ Inner Dialogical Activity Scale; (2). Differential Self-Reflection Inventory; (3). Russian version of J. Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Systemic reflection and Openness to experience showed significant linear dependencies on Ego Development level. Systemic reflection manifested as a partial mediator of the link between Openness to experience and level of Ego development. The contribution of inner dialogue became visible from the Stage E5 (Selfawareness) on, while below this level self-reflection mechanisms were neither differentiated nor associated with inner dialogical activity.
Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological correlates of meditation, most research has omitted to take into account the underlying philosophical aspects of meditation and its wider implications. This, in turn, is reflected in issues surrounding definition, study design, and outcomes. Here, I highlight the often ignored but important aspect of definition in the existing scholarship on neuroscience and meditation practice. For a satisfactory account of a neuroscience of meditation, we must aim to retrieve an operational definition that is inclusive of a traditional ontological description as well as the modern neurocognitive account of the phenomena. Moving beyond examining the effects of meditation practice, to take a potential step forward in the direction to establish howmeditation works, it becomes crucial to appraise the philosophical positions that underlie the phenomenology of meditation in the originating traditions. This endeavor may challenge our intuitions and concepts in either directions, but issues pertaining to definition, design, and validity of response measures are extremely important for the evolution of the field and will provide a much-needed context and framework for meditation based interventions.
The authors discuss the differences between time management programs and time perspective coaching and explore the possibilities of applying Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the coaching process. Based on the analysis of an individual time perspective profile, the coach may choose from a range of interventions suggested in this chapter. Specific interventions focused on overcoming the drawbacks of past-negative and present-fatalistic outlooks on time, as well as fostering the advantages of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive time perspectives are presented together with questions aimed to help clients in gaining a better understanding and new insights in each of the time perspective domains. A separate section discusses the potential of mindfulness interventions in fostering balanced time perspective.
The research of reflective processes and personality development was conducted with participation of 259 respondents aged from 14 to 25. We measured the ego development level, different facets of reflectiveness and the Big Five traits. The data demonstrates the significant linear dependencies between the forms of reflectiveness and the ego development levels.
The article analyses the notion of metapathology introduced in the late works of A. Maslow. It characterizes personality disorders as a sequence of a decrease in humaneness, as a manifestation of social shortcomings. The article justifies that «Metapathological» variants which are not optimal for personality development can be regarded as dilemmas.
The subject of this paper is social self-organisation. The paper presents two models of consensual agreement and two forms of social self-organization, and the differences between the organisation and the self-organization. The paper describes the constructive function the conflict plays in sociology, pedagogy and psychology, its role in personality development and the specifics of personality self-organisation.