Актуальные проблемы психологической науки: Сборник статей и выступлений международной научной конференции
Scholastic performance is related to cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities improve significantly during childhood and adolescence (Arsalidou, & Im-Bolter, 2017). One way to measure cognitive competence is by assessing the amount of information that children can hold and manipulate in mind, which we refer to as mental-attentional capacity. Within the theory of constructive operators (Pascual-Leone, 1970) mental-attention represents a domain general resource that enables problem solving and serves as the maturational component of working memory (Arsalidou et al., 2010). According to Pascual-Leone & Baillargeon (1994), the capacity of mental attention (M-operator) is limited at every developmental stage by the quantity of separate “chunks” of information, which a child can keep and operate in its own mind simultaneously or the number of schemes that can be picked from one’s repertoire and activated by M-operator all at one time using “mental effort”.
People tend to read regular words as a whole regardless of correct and incorrect spelling. For example, research shows that when the first and last letter positions remain the same in word the rest of the letters can be in any position and our mind is still able to read the word (Grainger and Whitney, 2004). This is important as it shows that our mind can derive meaning even in misleading situations. Misleading situations require the inhibition of irrelevant information. The color-word Stroop, a popular measure of inhibition, is a task that relies heavily on reading proficiency. Classic research shows that manipulating letter position in the Stroop test still elicits longer reaction times for incongruent conditions in adults (Regan, 1978; McCown and Arnoult, 1981). Our research shows that orthographic manipulations (i.e., changing letter positions in a word) have an effect on the word’s readability and that children as young as seven years can experience the Stoop effect when first and last positions of a colour word remain the same (onarge written in purple; Arsalidou et al., 2013). The purpose of this study was to examine effects of letter position in the color-word Stroop in the English and Russian language in English-Russian bilingual adults.