Measuring the information development and its differentiation in modern Russia
The paper is focused on the problem of balanced information and communication technologies development in modern society and its measures. Existing indices allow estimating the progress of this development, but they are mostly constructed for between countries comparison. At the lower level, we face the problem of different data set structure that does not allow us to use same indices immediately. Another problem is a lack of measures that provide both the estimation of the overall progress in ICT and the progress in its particular aspects at the regional level. Additional attention should be paid to the possible increase of regional differentiation in order to prevent its transformation into extreme form of digital divide. We propose the model in the form of hierarchical system of indices that includes the advantages of information development measurement in particular aspects and as a whole. Sub-indices in the system are just orthogonal, and widely used principal component analysis is not functional for their aggregation. That is why a measure of closeness of the aggregate indicator to the best possible value is used to create the main index. The output oriented data envelopment analysis is used along with the aggregate indicator construction technique to compare the positions of the most advanced regions. We also introduce the method of measuring the differentiation in some aspects of information and communication development to assess the dynamics of this differentiation. The results of the study can be used to stimulate progress in information and communication development that prevents an excessive increase in regional differentiation.
DEA-analysis is performed based on publicly available data on 94 world largest fashion retailers. Standard clusterization of coefficients obtained from DEA-analysis gives clusters that are analyzed with respect to homogeneity and fit to the types of strategic behavior outlined in strategic management.
What is governmental effectiveness on the regional level? How can the study of regional effectiveness help us understand the performance of the political, social and economic systems of the state as a whole? These questions are very important from both the theoretical and applied perspectives, and the Russian Federation, with its huge and diverse territory, provides extremely rich material to answer them. Serious institutional reforms in the public sector have been implemented in recent years, and the results vary substantially from one region to another. So, in Russia, we can study how general attempts to make government more effective - guided by federal policies - produce particular regional effects, and, conversely, how regions implement federal policy differently. Both views tell us something important about overall governmental quality.
Governmental effectiveness, though in a broad sense one of the oldest issues in political science and philosophy, is currently enjoying a renaissance. The quantity of recent publications and even a special academic structure - The Quality of Government Institute in Sweden – illustrate the current interest. However, researching governmental effectiveness poses serious difficulties, on both the conceptual and instrumental levels. Despite (perhaps even because of) the variety of available theoretical frameworks, the essential core notions of governmental effectiveness and good governance remain murky. Furthermore, scholars disagree about what effectiveness and efficiency mean in a general sense. These issues obviously make it difficult to construct adequate measurement instruments.
The paper seeks to achieve three goals: 1) to review existing approaches and highlight their weak points; 2) to propose a theoretical framework for analyzing governmental effectiveness using appropriate estimation tools; and 3) to present empirical results based on data on public health care from Russia’s regions. Three patterns that ought to correlate - regional efficiency, how reform has been implemented and public opinion – are, instead, inconsistent with each other. Russia’s health-care sector today faces considerable problems with basic, systemic effectiveness.
The 7th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV2013, took place in Seoul, Republic of Korea from 22 to 25 October 2013. The conference was organized under the patronage of the Ministry of Security and Public Administration of the Republic of Korea (MOSPA) by the National Information Society Agency and by Macao-based Center for Electronic Governance at United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology (UNU-IIST) as the founder and organizer of the ICEGOV series. The conference took place under the theme "Beyond 2015 Smart Governance, Smart Development". It was co-located with the Global e-Government Forum, organized by MOSPA in collaboration with United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA).
The ICEGOV series focuses on the use of technology to transform relationships between government and citizens, businesses, civil society and other arms of government (Electronic Governance). Established in 2007, the series looks beyond the traditional focus on technology-enabled transformation in government (Electronic Government) towards new forms, new paradigms, and new foundations for technology-enabled governance, collaboration and sustainable development. ICEGOV is a platform where researchers, policy-makers and practitioners meet; a platform where theories are tested, insights are shared and experiences are reported; a platform for network- and capacity-building where keynote lectures and paper sessions are complemented by plenary discussions, town hall debates and poster exhibitions; a platform for international dialogue attended by participants from developing, developed and transition countries, from the United Nations system, and from many academic, governmental, non-governmental and private sector organizations. Since its establishment, the series has traveled globally from Macao (ICEGOV2007), through Cairo (ICEGOV2008), Bogota (ICEGOV2009), Beijing (ICEGOV2010), Tallinn (ICEGOV2011) and Albany (ICEGOV2012), to Seoul (ICEGOV2013) all generating significant local interest and stakeholder engagement.
The program of ICEGOV2013 was built upon contributions from researchers and practitioners from around the world. In response to the call for papers, the conference received 133 papers from 54 countries and economies. The papers were evaluated in five categories: 1) Completed Research Papers providing the outcomes of complete research in one or more aspects of EGOV, with proven capability to advance the state of research in the field, limited to 10 pages; 2) Ongoing Research Papers providing the outcomes of ongoing research in one or more aspects of EGOV, with potential capability to advance the state of research in the field, limited to 4 pages; 3) Completed Experience Papers describing completed experience concerning EGOV policy or practice innovations, with proven capability to advance the state of practice in the field, including critical success factors and insights on the challenges encountered and how they were addressed, limited to 10 pages; 4) Ongoing Experience Papers describing ongoing experience concerning EGOV policy and practice innovations, with potential capability to advance the state of practice in the field, including critical success factors and insights on the challenges encountered and how they are being addressed, limited to 4 pages; and 5) Poster Papers presenting novel ideas and initiatives with potential to advance the state of research or state of practice in the field, limited to 2 pages. In total, 43 Completed Research Papers, 45 Ongoing Research Papers, 17 Completed Experience Papers, 21 Ongoing Experience Papers and 8 Posters were received. After anonymous peer-review process carried out by the members of the Program Committee at least three independent reviews were obtained for each submission as a basis for acceptance decisions: 13 submissions were accepted as Completed Research Papers, 8 as Completed Experience Papers, 29 as Ongoing Research Papers, 11 as Ongoing Experience Papers and 21 as Poster Papers. All accepted submissions, revised to address review comments, and presented at the conference within 6 paper tracks, 11 thematic sessions and one poster session, are included in this volume. Among them, like the last three ICEGOV conferences, the authors of selected papers were invited to submit extended versions of their papers for possible publication in the special issue of Government Information Quarterly, Elsevier.
Based on the submitted and invited contributions and continuing the ICEGOV tradition, ICEGOV2013 featured a rich academic, capacity-building and network-building program comprising keynote lectures, plenary discussions, town hall debates, paper tracks, thematic sessions and the doctoral colloquium and poster exhibition. The program engaged individuals from over 60 countries and economies as authors, reviewers, committee members or resource persons. The details of the program are provided below.
The conference included six keynote lectures on various aspects of Electronic Governance (EGOV), conducted by distinguished experts and practitioners in the area: 1) Park Chan Woo, Vice-Minister of Security and Public Administration of the Republic of Korea; 2) Alikhan Baimenov, Chairman of the Agency for Civil Service Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan; 3) Moon Suk Ahn, Chair Professor of e- Government, Korea University, Republic of Korea; 4) Mohammed Ali Al, Chief Executive Officer, e-Government Authority, Kingdom of Bahrain; 5) Henk G. Sol, Professor of Business and ICT and Founding Dean, University of Groningen, Netherlands; and 6) Edwin Lau, Head of Division, Reform of the Public Sector, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Three plenary sessions followed the keynote lectures on the second, third and fourth day of the conference, focusing on specific questions of interest to the EGOV research and policy community:
1. Are international EGOV rankings having a mobilizing or distracting influence on development? Chaired by Tomasz Janowski, Head of the Center for Electronic Governance at UNU-IIST and attended by: Vincenzo Aquaro, Chief of E-Government Branch, Division for Public Administration and Development Management, UNDESA; Bikesh Kurmangaliyeva, Deputy Chairwoman of the Board of "Zerde" National CT Holding, Kazakhstan; Mohammed Ali Al Qaed, CEO of eGovernment Authority, Kingdom of Bahrain; Mesfin Belachew Tefera, Technical Advisor to the Minister, Ethiopian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology; and Saleem Zoughbi, Former Regional ICT Advisor, UNESCWA and consultant for UNU-IIST.
2. Who should drive smart conversations for sustainable development experts, citizens or politicians? Chaired by Marijn Janssen, Professor of ICT and Governance at Technology, Policy and Management Faculty, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands and attended by: Sunil Choenni, Head, Department of Statistical Information Management and Policy Analysis, Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice; Harekrishna Misra, Professor in IT and Systems at the Institute of Rural Management Anand (IRMA), India; Henk G.Sol, Professor of Business and ICT and Founding Dean, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen, Netherlands; and Evgeny Styrin, Senior Research Analyst and Associate Professor, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia.
3. Is a common set of e-government principles, applicable to all countries and contexts, possible? Chaired by Samuel Chan, Member of Executive Committee, Macao Science and Technology Development Fund, Macao SAR Government and attended by: Wojciech Cellary, Head of the Department of Information Technology, Poznan University of Economics, Poland; Sharon Dawes, Senior Fellow, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA; Edwin Lau, Head of Division, Reform of the Public Sector, Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; and Jeremy Millard, Associate Research Fellow, Brunel University, UK.
Three town hall debates took place in the afternoons of the first, second and third days of the conference. They focused on three salient questions for the EGOV research and policy community:
1. Catalyzing Smart Transformation: What Makes Governments Smarter? Chaired by Samia Melhem, Lead Policy Specialist, Transform Practice, Chair, eDevelopment Community of Practice, Transport, Water and ICT, Sustainable Development Network, World Bank Group; and Oleg Petrov, Senior Program Officer, ICT, World Bank; and attended by: Jabiri Kuwe Bakari, CEO, e-Government Agency, Tanzania; Rajendra Kumar, Senior Officer, Indian Administrative Service and Joint Secretary (e-Governance), Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India; Bikesh Kurmangaliyeva, Deputy Chairwoman of the Board of "Zerde" National CT Holding, Kazakhstan; Margareta Petrusevschi, Knowledge and Learning Coordinator, e-Government Centre, Government of the Republic of Moldova; James Saaka, Executive Director, National Information Technology Authority, Uganda; Mesfin Belachew Tefera, Technical Advisor to the Ethiopian Minister of Communication and Information Technology; and Jeongwon Yoon, Executive Director, National Information Society Agency, Korea. This town hall was organized by the World Bank.
2. Is Good Governance a Pre-Condition or a Consequence of the Development of Knowledge Societies? Chaired by Andrea Cairola, Adviser for Communication and Information, UNESCO Office Beijing, Cluster Office to the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China and Republic of Korea; and attended by: Johanna Ekua Awotwi, Director of Research and ICT Operations, Centre for e-Governance, Accra, Ghana; Antonio Cordella, Lecturer in Information Systems, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, UK; Marco Peres, Director, Observatory for Society, Technology and Government Information, University Externado of Colombia, Colombia; Margareta Petrusevschi, Knowledge and Learning Coordinator, e-Government Centre, Government of the Republic of Moldova, Moldova; and Jeongwon Yoon, Executive Director, National Information Society Agency, Republic of Korea. This town hall was organized by the UNESCO Information for All Programme.
3. Striking the Balance of Security, Privacy and Openness: To Open or Not To Open? Chaired by Theresa Pardo, Director of the Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA, and attended by: Sharon Dawes, Senior Fellow, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA; Ramon Gil-Garcia, Research Director, Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA; Louise Thomasen, independent consultant and expert in EGOV and technology, Denmark; and Lei Zheng, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Fudan University, China.
The program included six paper tracks, chaired by leading international experts in the corresponding areas, comprising presentations of three to six accepted papers: 1) Building Smart Government chaired by Theresa Pardo, Director of the Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA and Gabriel Puron Cid, Professor at the Centre of Research and Teaching in Economic Sciences, Mexico; 2) Governing through Networks chaired by Sehl Mellouli, Associate Professor at Laval University, Canada and Adegboyega Ojo, Research Fellow and Leader of E-Government Group at INSIGHT, National University of Ireland, Ireland; 3) Policy and Governance Innovation chaired by Natalie Helbig, Senior Research Associate at the Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA and Marijn Janssen, Professor in ICT and Governance at the Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; 4) Smart Governance for Smart Industries chaired by Wojciech Cellary, Professor and Head of the Department of Information Technology at the Poznan University of Economics, Poland and Antonio Cordella, Lecturer at the London School of Economics and Political Sciences, UK; 5) Smart Governance for Smart Societies chaired by Jeremy Millard, Associate Research Fellow at the Brunel University, UK; and 6) Ethics, Transparency and Accountability chaired by Jeanne Holm, Chief Knowledge Architect at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA. Each track took place across the whole duration of the conference, with tutorial introduction to the topic of the track organized on the first day, presentations of accepted papers on the second or third day, and workshop-style discussion on the last day.
Complementing the paper tracks, 11 thematic sessions were organized and chaired by industrial, academic, government and international organizations active in the theme of the session, comprising presentations of up to four accepted papers: 1) EGOV for Developmentchaired by Nag Yeon Lee, ICT Consultant and Instructor for e-Government on behalf of the Asia Pacific Center on ICT for Development, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia Pacific; 2) National Data Policies chaired by Zhanat Zhakhmetova, Head of the Office of State Informatization Policy, Department of State Information Technology Policy, on behalf of the Ministry of Transport and Communications, Republic of Kazakhstan; 3) Governing Ageing Society chaired by Toshio Obi, Professor, Institute of e-Government on behalf of Waseda University, Japan; 4) Governing Smart Cities chaired by Yoon Chang So, Smart Cities Country Leader, IBM Korea on behalf of IBM; 5) Open Government Data Impact chaired by Edwin Lau, Head of Division, Reform of the Public Sector, Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, on behalf of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; 6) Interoperability Governance chaired by Jung Sik Hwang, Platform Strategy Lead at Microsoft Korea on behalf of Microsoft; 7) Government on Social Mediachaired by Jeanne Holm, Evangelist, Data.Gov and Chief Knowledge Architect at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA on behalf of the World Wide Web Consortium; 8) Innovative EGOV Applications chaired by Oleg Petrov, Senior Program Officer, ICT, World Bank on behalf of the World Bank; 9) Participatory Government chaired by Bernd Friedrich, Head of the Information and Communications Technologies for Development Project at Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany on behalf of GTZ; 10) Mobile Governance chaired by Nestor Eduardo Fajardo Infante, Advisor for Research, Development and Innovation, Ministry of Information Technology and Communication, on behalf of the Government of Colombia; and 11) Open Data Ecosystem chaired by Jeanne Holm, Evangelist, Data.Gov and Chief Knowledge Architect, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA on behalf of the U.S. Government and Data.Gov.
The program also included poster exhibition, organized in the reception style to allow authors to present their ongoing work, receive feedback and engage in discussions and networking; and an interactive doctoral colloquium, jointly organized by the Center for Electronic Governance at UNU-IIST, Macao, University of Groningen, Netherlands and Chuo University, Japan. The colloquium provided doctoral students from different disciplines an opportunity to discuss a variety of EGOV topics and methods related to their research work, dissertations and career plans. The colloquium was co-chaired by Elsa Estevez, Academic Program Officer, United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology, Macao; Hiroko Kudo, Professor of Public Policy and Public Management, Faculty of Law, Chuo University, Japan; and Henk G. Sol, Professor of Business and ICT and Founding Dean, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Groningen, Netherlands; and attended by Adegboyega Ojo, Research Fellow and Leader of E-Government Group at the INSIGHT Center for Data Analytics, National University of Ireland, Ireland as invited academic.
The conference awarded best paper titles in Best Research Paper and Best Experience Paper categories. The selection was carried out jointly by Elsa Estevez as the ICEGOV2013 Awards Chair, and Tomasz Janowski and Jeanne Holm as the ICEGOV2013 Program Chairs. Three papers were nominated to the Best Experience Paper award: 1) A Reputation Based Electronic Government Procurement Model by Hichem Klabi, Sehl Mellouli and Monia Rekik; 2) Government 3.0 in Korea: Fad or Fashion? byTaewoo Nam; and 3) Secure ID Management for Social Security and Tax Number System by Hisao Sakazaki, Dan Yamamoto, Akihiro Sugimoto and Shinji Hirata. The winner in this category was "A Reputation Based Electronic Government Procurement Model" by Hichem Klabi, Sehl Mellouli and Monia Rekik. Three papers were also nominated to the Best Research Paper award: 1) Harnessing the Duality of e-Participation Social Software Infrastructure Design by Lukasz Porwol, Adegboyega Ojo and John Breslin; 2) When Food Quality Control in China Meets Mobile and Wireless Technology: Interactions, Potentials and Pitfalls by Shuhua Liu; and 3) Cross-departmental Collaboration in Government One-Stop Center: Factors and Performance by Xinping Liu. The winner in this category was "Harnessing the Duality of e-Participation Social Software Infrastructure Design" by Lukasz Porwol, Adegboyega Ojo and John Breslin.
Many people and institutions contributed to the organization of ICEGOV2013. We wish to thank the official patron of ICEGOV2013, the Ministry of Security and Public Administration of the Republic of Korea for endorsing and supporting the conference. Our sincere thanks go to the National Information Society Agency, Republic of Korea (NIA) as the local organizer of the conference, particularly to Jeongwon Yoon for his vision and leadership, and to Dohyoon Kim and the whole team in NIA for their hard work and dedication to making the combined ICEGOV2013 and Global e-Government Forum event successful. We wish to express our most sincere thanks to the key sponsors Macao SAR Government and Macao Foundation and the sponsor Electronic Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan whose generous contributions allowed many academics and practitioners from developing countries to attend the conference. Special gratitude is due to Macao SAR Government, its Public Administration and Civil Service Bureau, and Macao Foundation for continuing support to the ICEGOV conference series and the origin of the series e-Macao Program. We also wish to thank ICEGOV2013 partners for their presence, support and in-kind contributions: Brunel University, London, UK; Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, USA; Data.Gov, U.S. Government; German Cooperation, Deutsche Zusammenarbeit and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Germany; IBM; Information and Communication Technologies, World Bank; Microsoft; Ministry of Information Technology and Communication, Colombia (MINTIC); Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; Poznan University of Economics, Poland; The Insight Centre for Data Analytics, National University of Ireland, Ireland; The Science and Technology Development Fund, Government of Macao SAR, Macao; UNESCO Information for All Programme; United Nations Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development; Vive Digital Programme, MINTIC, Colombia; Waseda University, Japan; and the World Wide Web Consortium. We also wish to express our thanks to ACM Press for publishing the ICEGOV2013 conference proceedings. We are most grateful to the whole Advisory Committee for supporting the conference and to all members of the Program Committee and additional reviewers for their efforts to carry out quality reviews and to help build a strong conference program. We thank keynote speakers; organizers, chairs and moderators of the plenary sessions, town hall debates, paper tracks, thematic sessions, the doctoral colloquium, and the poster session; and all panelists and speakers for their intellectual contributions. Last but not least, we are most thankful to all authors for their efforts in preparing, submitting and presenting papers at ICEGOV2013.
We hope that ICEGOV2013 will further contribute to building, growing and connecting global EGOV research, policy and practice communities, able to cross not only national and regional but also institutional and thematic borders, and that the contacts, discussions and ideas initiated in Seoul in October 2013 will continue well after the conference and towards ICEGOV2014 in Guimaraes, Portugal.
The article performs a comparative analysis of the efficiency of G20, BRICS and NIC member countries’ participation in global value chains (GVC) taking into account economic growth, investment activity, global competitiveness and productivity in the period from 2000 to 2009. Efficiency is evaluated by means of the method of data envelopment analysis under constant and variable returns of scale assumptions. The comparison of the efficiency of developed and developing countries participation in GVCs is made, the leaders and outsiders in using the GVCs’ potential are revealed. For the latter the target values of the input and output parameters allowing to reach the efficiency frontier are indicated.
The goal of the study is to increase the computation efficiency of the face recognition that uses feature vectors to describe facial images on photos and videos. These high-dimensional feature vectors are nowadays produced by convolutional neural networks. The methods to aggregate the features generated for each video frame are used to process the video sequences. A novel hierarchical recognition algorithm is proposed. In contrast to known approaches our algorithm seeks the nearest neighbors only among reference images of most reliable classes selected at the preceding stage to carry out the sequential analysis of a more detailed description level (with a greater dimensionality of the feature vector). At each stage principal components are compared, the number of the components being chosen according to a given portion of explained variations. Datasets like Labeled Faces in the Wild, YouTubeFaces, IAPRA, Jenus Benchmark C and different neural-net face descriptors are used to compare the algorithm with other methods. In contrast with the conventional nearest-neighbor method, the proposed approach is shown to allow a 2- to 16-times reduction of the classifier running time.
The study of existing monitoring systems is topical, because at the present level of development the transition to information society and knowledge economy becomes one of the key elements of national strategy aimed to increase country's competitiveness in the international market. There are many index systems that study the nature of this phenomenon and compare countries by the level of digital development. To ensure objective evaluation of innovation capacity the analysis of current monitoring systems applied in measuring the development of ICT and e-readiness together with data collection was suggested.
In recent decades, increased economic pressure and growing societal expectations have led to the introduction of performance-based funding models for universities. In this respect, a great scholarly attention has paid to how to evaluate universities performance correctly. This allows national governments to design and apply various taxonomies to facilitate the development of efficient programmes for the advancement of higher education. The wide spread approach used for that purpose is DEA. This paper provides a review of different approaches how to take into account universities heterogeneity when applying DEA to construct the typologies of university by showing statistically their similarities and differences. The authors use the modified DEA proposed by Aleskerov & Petrushchenko (2013) to evaluate performance scores of Russian technical universities. This proposed typology divides universities into specific groups with a description taking into account their heterogeneity.