Российские дипломаты в Испании: Яков Долгоруков
It was not until the early 18th century that Russia began to establish commercial and diplomatic relations with Western Europe. Peter the Great's foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. His westernization campaign extended across the Pyrenees. This tradition continued by the Russian empress Catherine II. Russian-Spanish relations, once terminated after the failure to connect Russia to the Viennese Alliance in 1730 , were reestablished since 1760. This article examines diplomatic relations between the two nations after Catherine II's ascension to the throne when Russian high-ranking diplomat, count Piotr Buturlin, was sent as an Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary minister to the Spanish court. Based on archival manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence) from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire, which were published for the first time, the research deals with the political and commercial relations between two nations during the early 1760s.
Histoire des "Observations sur le traité entre la Russie et le royaume de Sardaigne» attribuées à Diderot.
This article deals with the process of the establishment of Russian-Spanish relations in the 18th century and the role of one of the most distinguished Russian diplomats at the court of Catherine II Stepan Zinoviev who spent in Madrid around 20 years (1772-1794). The study is based largely on manuscripts (diplomatic and other correspondence) from the Archives of the External Policy of Russian Empire in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation and fills a gap in the investigation of Russian foreign policy of the 18th century and the Russian-Spanish relations. Catherine’s foreign interests were focused toward the major states of Northern Europe, but she also tried to strengthen the position of Russian Empire in Europe, to embed the country in the European 'Balance of Power' by establishing diplomatic relations with all European countries. In this sense, the Iberian Peninsula was not wholly without significance for Russia. The political unions of Russia with the outlying countries, as Spain, depended not only on the international situation in Europe in the second half of the 18th century but on the image of the country that was created by Russians who visited Spain at that time. The position of diplomats was particularly important they were almost the only ones, except for merchants and sailors, who visited that country and it is on the basis of their reports Russia's foreign policy in relation to Spain was built in the 18th century. Based on the reports of Zinoviev we can reconstruct the images of such important political figures as the Spanish King Charles III, Secretary of State Count of Floridablanca and the other ministers of the Spanish government. The biography of the outstanding Russian diplomat Stepan Zinoviev is presented in this article for the first time.
The collection includes articles on various aspects of Russian- American relations, the history of the United States late XVIII - early XX centuries. The first part examines the activities of individual diplomatic representatives of this period are analyzed shapedin the XIX-XX centuries. images of the two countries can be traced stages and directionsterritorial U.S. expansion in the late XVIII-XIX centuries. We study the problems of theeconomic history of Russia and America, mediation of President Theodore Roosevelt duringthe Russian -Japanese war. The second part of the book is devoted to the political problems of U.S. history. Cultural ties between the two countries - the subject of our studies of the third part. Collective work is designed for professionals , teachers, students and anyone interested in the history of Russia and America.
Esta publicación, de carácter académico, ofrece, de la mano de especialistas rusos y españoles, una visión de conjunto de la historia de las relaciones hispano-rusas —diplomáticas, económicas y científi co-culturales—. En sus páginas, se presta particular atención a las cuestiones relacionadas con la recepción cultural, al análisis de los paralelismos creativos en España y Rusia, a la historia del pensamiento, y a los temas artísticos. La edición es bilingüe y está dirigida tanto a especialistas del ámbito de las ciencias humanas y sociales, como a todos aquellos lectores interesados por las relaciones hispano-rusas.
In the article makes analysis of the negotiations which preceded the conclusion of the Polish-Soviet Pact of non-aggression in 1932. The study is based on the sources that input firstly on scientific field. Author contradicted the prevailing in the scientific literature opinion that by the Soviet initiative negotiations was resumed in 1930. The article discusses the influence on the negotiation process of third countries. Agreement was more a result of changes in the political situation in the world, rather than just an expression of good will. It was possible only because of the weakening of Poland's position in Europe. Politics of Poland and the Soviet Union were equally not inclined to see in Pact real guarantees and commitments, but saw it as an opportunity to normalize relations, as well as demonstrations to the third countries.