Психологическое благополучие «одиноких» матерей и их детско-родительские взаимоотношения
In this chapter we aim to examine the discourses created and reproduced through the interaction between single mothers and representatives of social services. The analysis is based on twenty-six interviews with single mothers and six interviews with social workers conducted in 2001–2003, and six interviews with single mothers and three with social workers conducted in 2006 in the Saratov region in Russia, as well as official documents and the publications of other researchers. In our interviews with mothers, we focused on the issues of familial well-being and interactions with social services, while social workers were asked to discuss their experiences with clients. A short overview of statistics and social policy terminology prefaces a discussion of how mother-headed families and state social policy interrelate and affect each other. The subsequent sections contain analysis of the interviews with single mothers who, as the heads of low-income households, interact with the social service system. The analysis demonstrates that single mothers are frustrated by inadequate assistance and the impossibility of improving their life situations. The discussion goes on to show that social workers, who are used to interpreting complex issues in the life situations of single mothers as individual psychological peculiarities, tend to blame the victim, thus ignoring important social conditions and imposing on women a responsibility for problems that are societal in origin.
The review article is devoted to modern research of “grit”, personality trait, which was identified and described by A.L. Duckworth, a professor of the University of Pennsylvania. There is no well-established translation of the notion into Russian. Our option is based on the conceptual understanding of the phenomenon and the established tradition of describing “grit” as a personal trait in the Russian psychology. Modern studies show that grit is a reliable predictor of high academic results and psychological well-being. However, not only grit, but also other personality trait explain success. Then the questions about the uniqueness of grit and how it differs from other predictors raise. We will explore what specificity grit has and why outcomes are contradictory sometimes. To conclude we consider that grit can be an important personal resource.
We present a series of studies aimed at the development and the validation of a new Russian-language instrument measuring existential fulfilment based on the hierarchical structure of the 4 existential fundamental motivations developed by A. Längle. Based on phenomenological descriptions and focus groups, we created a 94-item set. The structural validation study used 2 online samples (N = 818 and N = 215). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, expert-rating procedure, and confirmatory factor analysis with cross-validation we arrived at a hierarchically structured set of 36 items grouped into 4 scales (forming a general index of existential fulfilment) and 12 subscales corresponding to theoretical prerequisites of fundamental motivations. The scales demonstrated acceptable reliability (α in the .79-.88 range, .93 for the general score). In 3 samples (N = 658, N = 215, N = 105) we sought evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of TEM against measures of well-being (emotional, social, and psychological well-being, subjective happiness, satisfaction with life), basic psychological need satisfaction, self-esteem, psychopathology (anxiety, depression, alienation), and the Big Five traits using correlation and regression analyses. Two other studies explored the associations of existential fulfilment with other demographic and psychological variables (gender, age, self-control, reflexive processes) in a large sample (N = 3766) and investigated TEM scores in individuals with binge eating disorder (N = 193). The findings show the convergent validity of existential fulfilment indicators against well-being measures based on different theoretical approaches, as well as discriminant and criterion validity of existential fundamental motivation scales. We also discuss the psychometric challenges associated with existential concepts and propose approaches to their solution.
The article presents an empirical study of the relationship between the psychological well-being of a person and his/ her inner dialogical activity, measured as the frequency of dialogical practices of praying and meditating. The result showed that the frequency of dialogical practices weakly positively correlates with all indicators of psychological well-being in the samples of Orthodox believers, Muslims and Buddhists, and makes a unique significant contribution to the explanation of well-being dispersion. The result is argued from the point of the problem of method for studying internal dialogue.