О консонантизме амгуэмского говора чукотского языка
This paper continues the series of publications on the morphology of the dialect of Staroshvedskoye (Sw. Gammalsvenskby), which is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union. The village of Staroshvedskoye is located in the Kherson region, Ukraine. Its Swedish dialect historically belongs to the group of Swedish dialects of Estonia and goes back to the dialect of the island of Dagö (Hiiumaa). Due to the lack of studies of the present-day dialect and because of the severe endangerment in which the dialect is currently situated, the most urgent task is to collect, classify, and publish the factual material. This paper introduces comprehensive material on nouns of type m. 3 which occurred in unterviews with fluent speakers of the dialect.
The article is devoted to the analysis of pronunciation errors of students of Economics. Four groups of mistakes are listed, and different techniques to eliminate them are given.
Due to the ongoing process of rapid decrease in the number of spoken languages, one of the most urgent tasks of linguistics today is to document endangered languages. The data from insufficiently studied languages (which is often the case with endangered languages) allows linguists to enrich factual material of linguistics. This is particularly important for the development of linguistic typology. Among the issues associated with endangered languages, one of the most linguistically significant is the structural changes taking place within them. An obsolescing language is in a sense a laboratory where processes of linguistic change can be studied at the very moment of their operation. The paper examines data from the dialect of Staroshvedskoye (Gammalsvenskby), which is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union. Its current state has not been described in linguistic literature. The main types of speakers of endangered languages, distinguished on the basis of language competence, are fluent speakers, semi-speakers and terminal speakers; all three of these types are present in Staroshvedskoye. With imperative forms serving as an example, the variety of the dialect spoken by the fluent speakers is compared with the variety spoken by the semi-speakers. It is demonstrated that the main characteristic features of the semi-speakers are a significant increase in the number of forms, high frequency of free variation and the prevalence of analytic and descriptive patterns over synthetic ones. An attempt to explain the latter phenomenon is made as well.