Изучение моделей коммерциализации научных разработок в проектах ИПФ РАН
The article is devoted to the analysis of commercialization models in projects of technological entrepreneurship, which come from the IAP RAS. Also in the article the system of commercialization of scientific developments for the IAP RAS was developed, within the framework of which it was proposed to create a separate structural unit - the Technology Transfer Center.
This book is a doctoral dissertation. It is devoted to technology transfer from the West (primarily from Finland) to the Soviet forestry industry during a period of rapid modernization under the rule of Nikita Khrushchev during the 1950s and 1960s.This dissertation examines the role that technology transfer from the other side of the Iron Curtain played in Soviet modernization from 1955 to 1964. How did technical cooperation with a Western country develop in the context of the Cold War? How and in what forms did Soviet institutions and engineers transfer technologies? How did they deal with more advanced machinery and new expertise? How did they apply the new technologies and how did Soviet domestic research develop? Did these technologies help renew machinery, launch new production and enhance the development of the industry, as expected? If not, why? And, in general, did these foreign technologies lead to technological modernization? In answering these questions, the dissertation sometimes refers to previous periods in order to trace continuities and change.
In this paper, we investigate differences in and determinants of technical efficiency across three groups of OECD, Asian and Latin American countries. As technical efficiency determines the capacity with which countries absorb technology produced abroad, these differences are important to understand differences in growth and productivity across countries, especially for developing countries which depend to a large extend on foreign technology. Using a stochastic frontier framework and data for 22 manufacturing sectors for 1996-2005, we find notable differences in technical efficiency between the three country groups we examine. We then investigate the effect of human capital and domestic R&D, proxied by the stock of patents, on technical efficiency. We find that while human capital has always a strongly positive effect on efficiency, an increase in the stock of patents has positive effects on efficiency in high-tech sectors, but negative effects in low-tech sectors.
The evolution of the exploitation of forests in Finland followed the logic of state and private firms. It was also characterized by the importance of technology transfers, which accompany major evolutions in this crucial activity for the country and put Finland at the crossroads of multiple influences and actors’ initiatives.
The transition to a market economy in Russia not only was accompanied by general economy crisis, but also provided wide opportunities for entrepreneurship, including technology sphere. But still, there is a void on peculiarities of technology entrepreneurship development in Russia. That is why the aim of this paper is to consider in dynamics some features of technology enterprises development in the changing context on the example of region that has favorable conditions for technology entrepreneurship. Due to exploratory character of the research, main results are based on 10 case-studies of technology enterprises established in 1990s and 2000s in the region. As a result of the study, some typical features for technology entrepreneurship in the region were found: the most important resources are people and intellectual property; inviolable principle is to minimize external financing; company development strategy is niche and based, focusing on core competencies and outsourcing non-core activities.
This paper studies technology creation and transfer of 95 Russian research and technology organisations (RTOs) into producer organisations in agriculture and mining. Previous findings suggested that in agriculture, the barriers for technology adaption are particularly high due to technological conservatism and the atomic structure of the industry. Although RTOs in agriculture publish more and register more patents, they struggle to translate their success into transfer activities. While technology transfer in mining goes well hand in hand with applied research, RTOs in agriculture either build on new technologies or generate revenues through ready-to-use services. The explanation for this rather short-term oriented demand for services of Russia's RTOs lies in the financial situation of client organisations. The vast majority complain about their dire lack of financial means to pay for new technologies. Consequently, agricultural producers do not generate enough revenues to pursue future opportunities, with far reaching consequences. The situation could get better if the RTOs and the client would agree to longer-lasting relationships.
From Google search to self-driving cars to human longevity, is Alphabet creating a neoteric Garden of Eden or Bentham’s Panopticon? Will King Solomon’s challenge supersede the Turing test for artificial intelligence? Can transhumanism mitigate existential threats to humankind? These are some of the overarching questions in this book, which explores the impact of information awareness on humanity starting from the Book of Genesis to the Royal Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC to the modern day of Google Search, IBM Watson, and Wolfram|Alpha. The book also covers Search Engine Optimization, Google AdWords, Google Maps, Google Local Search, and what every business leader must know about digital transformation. “Search is curiosity, and that will never be done," said Google’s first female engineer and Yahoo’s sixth CEO Marissa Mayer. The truth is out there; we just need to know how to Google it!.
This paper studies sectoral differences in technology transfer of 170 Russian Research and Technology Organisations engaged into technology transfer to agriculture, mining and quarrying, high-tech, medium-high-tech, medium-low-tech and low-tech industries. RTOs in these five groups do not overlap by customers' economic activities and are representative for all Russian regions. Certain factors have in fact opposite effects in different sectors. A customer without a clear vision is perceived as a curse by one sector, but by another one perceived as a blessing. Another such factor is the high economic risk of the application of new technologies. Furthermore, we proved the presence of influence factors which show the same effects with different degrees of intensity depending on the sectors. Thereby, we also provide insights into Russia's innovation system.