Именная инкорпорация в древнефризских глаголах: новые данные
The paper discusses 10 Old Frisian verbal constructions that can be considered noun-incorporated verbs. Nominal incorporation is wide-spread in Indo-European. In Germanic, nominal incorporation as applied to verbs is not productive as a word-formation tool, except for Frisian. S. Dyk, a linguist and an expert in Frisian, has carried out a comprehensive research on noun-incorporation in Modern Frisian (Dyk 1997). Some incorporated verbs are part of Middle Frisian texts. Yet, as the author states, no words following this word-formation pattern had been attested in Old Frisian. This paper present new data achieved within a PhD-thesis on compounding in Old Frisian (including all the attested lexis, which amounts to ca. 11,750 lemmas). The findings are 10 Old Frisian lexical constructions that might be treated as noun-incorporated (proto-)compounds due to a set of reasons. The arguments for considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (1) ‘terminological’ specification of their semantics; (2) proven evaluation of this word-formation pattern into a productive and frequent mechanism in Modern Frisian through Middle Frisian. The arguments against considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (3) no conjugational paradigm present in the actual contexts, i. e. the 10 words occur exclusively as substantivized infinitives and do not function as finite verbs yet; (4) the 10 words are not frequent in terms of being attested in various sources distinguished by chronological, spatial and genre-based criteria. Moreover, the paper discusses some limitations of the words’ possible interpretations, and their formal and semantic features are described. The 10 words are: bon-skelda ‘to impose a fine’, brond-skatta ‘to commit arson’, hēr-plokkia ‘to pull at someone’s hair’, holt-sāgia ‘to cut wood’, hreg-breka ‘to break someone’s back’, mes-lūka ‘to pull a knife’, rēd-slā ‘to give advice’, stēn-drega ‘to carry stones around the town (as a punishment)’, stēn-fēra ‘to move stones’, wax-drāia ‘to produce wax candles’. Semantically, most of the words refer to criminal, legal actions; two of them (‘to cut wood’ and ‘to produce wax candles’) are designations of highly frequent occupational actions. One of them, ‘to give advice’, is well-known for having cognates in other Germanic languages. These meanings might have been rendered through a noun-incorporating pattern for a reason: they denote some actions so frequent and collocational that they were bound to form ‘terminological’ items and develop into a productive ford-formation model.