Возможности использования методов статистического анализа данных в изучении роли и места маркетинга в деятельности российских НКО
The study evaluates the relationship between charity brand image and donors’ giving behavior. We use qualitative data collected via online-survey (N=97) to elicit significant characteristics of charities as perceived by donors. Based on qualitative findings we design 63 bipolar scales and test our instrument on a sample of donors (those who donated money (N=91) and time (N=101)). Using exploratory factor analysis, we obtain 5 factors explaining 40,9% and 43,5% of variance in the answers, respectively. Factor structure is different for donors and volunteers. Using regressions we show that the five factors predict charitable intentions (repeated giving and recommendations) (R2=0,607 for monetary donators and 0,569 for volunteers). Money donors highly value positive emotions associated with giving, whereas volunteers put more emphasis on smooth operation of the charity. We find that such characteristic as popularity (charity is well-known) is not significantly linked with repeated donations or recommendations. The results indicate that brand-image is an important path of attracting donors. These findings may help managers of charities better tailor their branding campaign by addressing appropriate groups of donors/volunteers. The study focuses on both actual and future giving behavior and utilizes a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to design and validate the survey instrument.
This article is devoted to the market orientation as an innovative practice of Russian non-profit organizations. Market orientation is analyzed both as a form of organizational philosophy and culture, and as a set of behavior norms. Approaches to the definition and measurement of market orientation in the non-profit sector in empirical studies are disclosed.
Purpose. The article aims to reveal how market orientation influences efficiency of Russian non-profits’ (NPO) operation. Design/ methodology/ approach. Market orientation is defined in a behavioral theoretical framework and measured by the MARKOR scale, adapted for the Russian non-profit sector. Efficiency of NPO’s operation is measured by self-reporting indicators, estimated by NPO’s CEOs. Indicators include beneficiaries’ satisfaction, organization's capacity to attract resources, and organizational reputation. The study is based on an organizational all-Russian survey (2017 г., N = 242 NPOs). Information was collected by face-to-face interviews with NPO’s CEOs using semi-formal inventory. Survey was conducted in 30 Russian regions. Findings. It was revealed that market orientation positively influences on efficiency of NPO’s operation. Market orientation on donors contributes to fundraising and increase in organizational reputation. Market orientation on beneficiaries positively influences on beneficiaries’ satisfactions and increase in reputation. It was also specified, that Russian NPOs are likely to be oriented on beneficiaries than on donors. Research limitations/ implications. The research has number of limitations: only one type of NPOs was examined, i.e. foundations; results are based on self-reporting measurement, that is a subject to subjective estimations; CEOs are the only representatives of an NPO, excluding any other employees; absence of longitudinal survey data. Main directions for future studies relate to examination of relation between market orientation and efficiency of other types of NPOs; combination of assessment made by CEOs and other employees; conduction of longitudinal studies. Practical issues of market orientation introduction into NPO’s operation should also gain future consideration. Practical implications. Application of the suggested framework might estimate a degree of market orientation of a particular NPO. Originality/ value. The study is a step forward theoretical and empirical conceptualization of the marker orientation and its influence on NPO’s efficiency in Russia.
Market orientation as a form of realization of the marketing concept in the nonprofit sector is discussed from the point of view of the behavioral approach as a set of organizational norms or actions. Three interconnected components of the market orientation are considered; there are the collection of the information about needs, values, and motives of the beneficiaries and donors, dissemination of the information among the organization’s employees, and development and realization of the coordinated responsive actions, providing for planning and realization of different marketing strategies and tactics.
The author deconstructs the prevailing controversial conceptualization of nonprofit marketing and concludes it rests on three principles: voluntary exchange, an open system organization, and self-interest motivation. Negative case analysis of these principles revealed that alternative principles were ignored in the social science literature. Based on a qualitative analysis a revised conceptualization of non-profit marketing was suggested which incorporated the principles of redistribution and reciprocity, the features of a closed model of formal organization, and public interest motivation. The critical theory approach to the study used non-empirical procedures that included negative case analysis. The paper presents results of negative case analysis.
Modern non-profit marketing theory was developed from narrow borrowing social sciences concepts discussed in sociology, organizational behavior, and economic anthropology. However, there are additional alternative concepts and ideas from social sciences that can better explain the phenomena of non-profit marketing.
The article suggests to adopt a pluralism methodological approach in marketing science. Using controversy over marketing to nonmarketers problem paper traces evolution of the issue in context of research methodology and discusses alternative methodological approaches and research paradigms.