The effects of some natural and artificial factors on the thermal interaction between a pipeline and permafrost soil has been studied. A mathematical model describing the soil temperature profile, thawed soil subsidence and pipeline elevation has been proposed. A temperature profile of the soil around the pipeline has been determined through solving the heat conductivity equation. The analysis accounts for the thermal interaction between the pipeline and permafrost soil; soil surface heat exchange; and porous moisture phase transformation heat exchange. For displacement and stress-strain analysis a pipeline has been represented as an elastic endless beam exposed to complex loads. The thermal and mechanical pipeline to soil interaction analysis accuracy has been estimated as the surrounding soil temperature field, the thaw halo border, and the pipeline stress-strain state is determined. The error is estimated by analyzing the data obtained analytically and through experiments. The obtained accuracy is sufficient to apply the proposed model for long-term stress-strain state analysis of a pipeline in permafrost. The model can identify vulnerable permafrost pipeline sections, and forecast the scope of work for each pipeline segment.
The purpose of this manual is to consolidate the theoretical knowledge in areas of "computer microarchitecture", "CPU", "CISC-to-RISC pipelines". In this manual describes the features of the organization of the work of contemporary superscalar processors, the Intel architecture when running native commands. At the end of the laboratory work the student must have an understanding of the cycle and phases of operation of the processor core for execution of the command, the micro-operations and the number of them for different phases of the command. The student should be able to explain the graphs and tables the results of modeling for their version of the task and answer the questions placed at the end of this study guide.
In article the condition of infrastructure of the Caspian region and alternative routes of transportation of the Caspian oil investigated