К вопросу о представлении маршрута для робота в задаче фуражирования
One of the actively developed approaches to the issues of management in the group robotics is application of models of social behavior in groups of robots. In this paper it is offered to use this approach to fulfill the tasks of foraging. The basis of the proposed method is formed by the principles of memorizing the way by visual landmarks and fuzzy control. Results of simulation modeling which confirm efficiency of the approach are presented.
The paper describes two types of marking of landmark in Bashkir. Bashkir has two ways of expressing location: a landmark with the locative case marker and a landmark with a spatial postposition. The choice among two possibilities depends on some semantic features. The main goal of the paper is to analyze the choice between thеse constructions. The data were collected using a special questionnaire which was developed for the research of spatial relations of the world’s languages [Bowerman, Pederson 1992] and using additional elicitation. As a result, a competition area of these two ways of landmark expression was found. The choice of the type of landmark marking within this area depends on the properties of situation which are described in the article.
400 years after the publication of F. Bacon’s ‘Novum Organum’ in 1620 and 460 years from his birth, we propose to take seriously his claim that by the true induction as the New Method for the new science, he creates a new logic, which, referring to limitations in the study of nature, inherent in the imperfect cognitive subjects, appears as a technology of sequential operations with abstractions in the spirit of the cognitive turn in the contemporary logic.
A fundamental problem of search of sense in the Universe is under consideration in the article. The application of such notions as sense, sign, signal to the biological (non-linguistic) processes what is a main problem of biosemiotics is discussed as well. The epistemological analysis of the concept of Umwelt coined by Jakob von Uexküll is made and its significance for the modern advances in epistemology, in cognitive science and in the theory of complex adaptive systems is demonstrated. A man in his cognitive, sense-making activity is considered in aspect of the universal evolutionary process together with the realm of living nature. It is shown that on the basis of achievements of biosemiotics, a possibility of search of new ways of integration of natural scientific and humanitarian knowledge is glimmered.
The article expounds the functional of a cognitive architecture Sign-Based World Model (SBWM) through the algorithm for the implementation of a particular case of reasoning. The SBWM architecture is a multigraph, called a semiotic network with special rules of activation spreading. In a semiotic network, there are four subgraphs that have specific properties and are composed of constituents of the main SBWM element – the sign. Such subgraphs are called causal networks on images, significances, personal meanings, and names. The semiotic network can be viewed as the memory of an intelligent agent. It is proposed to divide the agent’s memory in the SBWM architecture into a long-term memory consisting of signs-prototype, and a working memory consisting of signs-instance. The concept of elementary mental actions is introduced as an integral part of the reasoning process. Examples of such actions are provided. The performance of the proposed reasoning algorithm is considered by a model example.
Background: Impairments in spatial processing show themselves not only in gnosis and praxis, but also in the language domain. Luria (1947) considered this deficit a characteristic feature of so-called semantic aphasia and explained the impaired comprehension of semantically reversible constructions in those patients by a disorder of the common spatial neuropsychological factor grounded in the temporal-parietal-occipital regions of the brain.
Aims: The aim of the present study was to experimentally test the possibility that individuals with semantic aphasia experience specific difficulties in extracting spatial relations from a linguistic form and rely instead on basic sensorimotor stereotypes to interpret reversible linguistic constructions.
Method & Procedures: Six individuals with semantic aphasia, 12 people with motor aphasia, 12 people with sensory aphasia, and 12 non-brain-damaged individuals performed a sentence-picture matching task; all participants were native speakers of Russian. Two types of reversible sentences were tested, each representing a direct and an inverted word order: prepositional (The boy is putting the bag in the box vs. The boy is putting in the box the bag) and instrumental (The grandmother is covering the scarf with the hat vs. The grandmother is covering with the hat the scarf). Irreversible sentences (The boy is putting the apple in the bag) served as control stimuli.
Outcomes & Results: Each group of participants performed better on irreversible than on reversible sentences. Within reversible sentences, an interaction between word order and construction type was found in individuals with semantic aphasia only. They performed more accurately in prepositional constructions with direct word order and in instrumental constructions with inverted word order – both are related to sensorimotor stereotypes reflecting interaction with objects in the real world. Although no such clear dissociation was found in other aphasia types, correlation analysis revealed the same effect in some participants with motor and sensory aphasia.
Conclusions: The findings confirm the importance of situational context for linguistic processing. First, if knowledge of the real world supports the unique interpretation of grammatical markers, it enhances processing in all tested cohorts of participants. Second, people with semantic aphasia consistently use sensorimotor stereotypes to compensate for their linguistic deficits. Since this was also found in some participants with other aphasia types, such a sensorimotor strategy might depend not on the damage to temporal-parietal-occipital areas as such, but on the intactness and overuse of left premotor regions suggested to be critical for motor and symbolic sequential processing (Luria, 1947).