Специфика содержания образовательных потребностей студентов с ограниченными возможностями здоровья, получающих высшее образование
This paper summarizes the insights obtained in the course of the proactive educational project "Inclusive Higher School." The goals of the project are to examine the present-day process of inclusive education at the National Research University "Higher School of Economics", as well as to develop a set of recommendations for promoting an enabling learning environment for students with disabilities. This paper briefly describes the main steps of the project, sums up the results of the studies, and analyzes the current degree of disability inclusion at the Higher School of Economics.
This paper presents an analysis of current challenges for inclusive education in Russian universities, discussed problems related to an academic process in the field learning of students with special needs (accessible environment, special tools and technologies for educating disabled people, developing an inclusive culture, etc.).
Not all people with disabilities are provided with assistive technologies and devices (ATD) they need. The Russian researchers appeal to the development of assistive technologies, however, focus only on one specific social objective of ATD provision or on engineering, economic and production aspects of the problem. This study identifies the key determinants of the development of the assistive technologies market in Russia and trends over the next 10–15 years. We conducted a qualitative study using a grounded theory based on open and axial coding procedure. We collected data using semi-structured interviews with 12 experts recruited through snowball sampling with multiple entry points. The results show that the focus on the development of individual rehabilitation programs, individual fitting of devices, the increasing demand for measures of medical and social support for people with disabilities create conditions for the growth of demand for ATD. Changes in the paying capacity of the population, the rules of budget financing, as well as the population's attitude towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in everyday activities, the labor market, education will also cause changes in demand for ATD.
The purpose of this research is to identify the common elements of successful strategies in overcoming social exclusion. The success criterion is an obtaining of social recognition by people with disabilities due to their social, labor and other activities. For the purpose of the research we performed ten biographical interviews with people with disabilities living an active lifestyle. Results of the research include a description of common elements of successful strategies of social exclusion overcoming for the following activities of respondents: labor and social activities as well as obtaining professional education. In addition to that, we have identified respondents’ objectives and how they plan their social exclusion overcoming activities and the resources they use. The main outcome of this research is that the key for successful social exclusion overcoming by people with disabilities is their willingness to overcome social exclusion. Each successful case of social exclusion overcoming has a strategy behind it: an adequate estimation of available resources, rational choice of tools and ways to use them and tactics for external structures utilization.
A field study was performed by experts from the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations conducted by HSE in cooperation with the Levada Center. Interviews and focus groups were organized with school principals, teachers, students and their parents in three schools teaching the most challenging type of students from low socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, who nevertheless achieve high learning outcomes. This is a follow-up of the 2015 study of environment characteristics, management and education strategies of schools operating in unfavorable social contexts. Such schools are defined as resilient, meaning that they successfully resist the disadvantaged context beyond their control. The schools surveyed differ in the number of students, education programs, and the level of regional deprivation, yet all of them pursue similar strategies that are well-targeted and recognized by all educational process participants. Such strategies include: introducing limited selection and levelling off the student body, imposing high expectations and transparent requirements to learning outcomes, providing individual support and encouragement to students, and developing the skills boosting graduates’ chances of successful socialization. Consistent implementation of these strategies will create conditions to promote academic resilience among students. Studying the experience of such schools appears to be crucial for solving the problem of inequality in education.