Hierarchies of Beings in the Patristic Thought. Gregory of Nyssa and Dionysius the Areopagite
The purpose of this chapter is to trace how the topic of the hierarchy of natural beings was dealt with in the Patristic thought. This first part of the study will review the doctrine of natural beings in Gregory of Nyssa. Then we will move on to Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite whose understanding of hierarchy is substantially different than that of Gregory of Nyssa.
The article proposes application of the level approach to attention research. Four basic principles of levelbased architecture of attention are derived from theoretical premises of the level approach to cognition and the psychology of attention as well as from empirical data. The author offers a variant of empirical research program which is based on the logic of the level approach. Finally the 5 level model of attention processes organization is proposed on the basis on experimental data. The article also contains examples of author's empirical studies which are interpreted in the level approach framework. The first study demonstrates the functioning of the redundancy principle (which is one the basic principles stated in study) in the visual inspection tasks. The second study shows the differences in the efficiency of memorizing the same material and the differences in experiencing of subjective confidence in mnemonic judgments depending on the leading level of attention in task solving.
The paper introduces the notion of pseudo-hybrids. The structures exist in Russian bus paaeneger transport and on the oil service market. While these structures seem to have features of hybrids, they are a tool of exploitation of subcontractors or a way of work precarization
The article reconstructs the philosophical context of the polemics on the status of commonness in Eunomius and the Neo-Arian controversy. This chapter showed that the concepts of universals which had been developed in classical philosophy, played an important role in the Eastern Christian theology and philosophy of the fourth century. The Aristotelian principle of individual/species division were important in the process of problem setting in the Eastern Christian philosophy. In the second half of the fourth century, the representatives of the Nicean ecclesiastical party adopted the principle and developed the doctrine that the divine substance and the Persons of the Holy Trinity were correlated as individuals and species. The Nicaeans put forward this principle to justify their Trinitarian doctrine, according to which all Persons of the Holy Trinity, including the Son and the Holy Spirit, belonged to the divine order. This doctrine forced Eunomius, the leader of the Neo-Arian party which insisted on the created nature of the Son and the Spirit, to put forward the doctrine about the applicability of the individual/species/genera discourse only to material beings, but not to the realm of the intellectual and divine.
The human history has evidenced various systems of hierarchy and power in different spheres of social life. The relations of hierarchy and power are relevant for every sphere as they penetrate the whole life of a society and represent a sort of framework for an individual's activity. The cultural sphere (in the wide sense of the word) is not an exception, although, of course, it has great peculiarities in the manifestation of power-hierarchical relations. The relations here are usually informal and more often connected with traditions than with norms, there are much less power structures that have the legal right for coercion. The book consists of two main parts. The papers included in the first section discuss the dynamics and potentials of newly emerging socio-cultural network structures and the ways in which they reconceptualize socio-cultural organization through innovative forms of spatial practice. The second section is dedicated to the study of new models of communication whose influence overcomes states' borders and which have a great potential and capabilities for destroying the basis and cultural values of the society.
Enterprises often need to make a choice of the development vector of its activities among the various existing strategic alternatives. The use of the methodology offered in this article is based on the selection and the degree ranging of external factors, that influence the company. The proposed model can lead to a quickly choose of the priority within the company objectives of possible alternatives. The article consist of the determinative constructed algorithm, from the selection and evaluation procedures of factors influence degree on the enterprise development up to the assessment criteria of the set goals.