РОССИЯ – США: ВРЕМЕННАЯ СТАБИЛИЗАЦИЯ КОНФРОНТАЦИИ
As before, the issue of the “West – East – Russia” Yearbook covers major events, processes and trends of the past year related to interactions between the developed Center and World Periphery or Semi-Periphery. Russia’s interests and positions in this context is important theme for us. The main topics of the panorama 2015 are the international terrorism in the Middle East conflicts, oil crisis, the waves of migrants in Europe, problems of BRICS. These and other aspects are examined not only in global dimension, but also in separate regions (including East Asia, Latin America, CIS etc.). As usual, there is some information on ecological matters, academic activities and recently published books.
The interaction between SFRY and EEC dates back to the 1960s/ During the Yugoslav crisis of the 1990s the EU tried to mediate conflicts but failed. NADO and USA took the lead. The early XXI century saw another attempt of the EU to stabilize and modernize the Balkans. Since its efforts to some extent impotent, NATO once again dominates the regional crisis management. The confrontation between Russia and the West may trigger destabilization in the region which faces frowing internal contradictions.
Korean-Russian Jeju Forum 2012 was organized by the East Asia Foundation and was dedicated to relations between Russia and the countries of the Korean Peninsula.
The article is devoted to the role of social learning in a situation of solving of conflicts between peers at teenage age. The following hypothesis has been verified in the research: social learning increases probability of change of behaviour strategy in solving interpersonal conflicts between teenagers. 124 subjects, 70 men and 54 women (at the age from 13 till 14) have participated in the experiments. In our research K.Tomas's technique for diagnostics the personality’s style of behaviour in the conflict and D.Moreno's sociometric technique have been also used. Our results testifies that at the teenage age presence of the positive example for imitation - «significant other», using cooperation strategy for solving conflicts, increases probability of change of behaviour strategy for more constructive results of a conflict situation solving. The positive example for imitation is the most significant and is the most used in a case of recurrent occurrence of an interpersonal conflict. At the same time, «significant other», using confrontation strategy, does not provoke teenagers to use negative model of behaviour that is to choose rivalry and ignoring strategy in solving interpersonal conflicts with their peers.
Th is monograph “Th e Greek Islands of Catherine the Great: Russia’s Imperial Realities in the Mediterranean” by Professor Elena B. Smilianskaia of the National Research University Higher School of Economics, investigates the history of the Russian-Ottoman War of 1768–1774. It is based on a wide array of historical sources, among them archival records from the collections of the Russian State Naval Archive (RGAVMF), the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA), the Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA), and others. Th e text also contains visual materials gathered in Greece. Th e book proceeds in two parts: the fi rst discusses the development of political authority over the Greek islands in the Aegean Sea (otherwise referred to as the Archipelago islands), which came under Russian control in the 1770s, while the second examines the creation of a Russian naval base on Paros. Th e appendices include a journal kept by a participant of the expedition, K.L. von Tölle (an archival manuscript translated from the German and annotated by Anna Friesen) and M.G. Kokovtsev’s 1786 essay, “A Description of the Archipelago.” During the years from 1770 to 1775 Russian naval commanders Aleksei Orlov, Grigorii Spiridov, and Andrei Elmanov pursued Catherine’s goals in the Mediterranean, which involved constructing a Russian naval base and liberating Orthodox Christians from Ottoman rule. Th is was a unique moment in Russian history, as it brought the fi rst overseas territories — thirty islands in the Aegean Sea — under Russian control, and it provided an opportunity for future Russian military and political presence in the Mediterranean. Beginning in 1771, when the fi rst archipelago islands took an oath to Empress Catherine II, the leaders of the Archipelago expedition endeavored to reform government and taxation, set up a Senate and chancellery, create an autocephalous Orthodox Church, and form an independent Synod. In accordance with the Empress’s wishes, they established a special school for Greek children on the island of Naxos. However, according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, the Russian fl eet had to leave the Eastern Mediterranean and Archipelago islands. Th e Russians also abandoned a partiallybuilt military base on Paros. Th ese departures stranded the islands’ inhabitants, who for fi ve years had considered themselves ‘subjects’ of the Russian empress. Th e Russian Empire left them only with the possibility of migrating to southern Russia. Catherine the Great’s Mediterranean policy provoked a discussion about the extreme nature of her colonial ambitions in that region. Th is book debunks the theories that ‘the Greek idea’ constituted merely a political game for Russia and that Russian activity on the Aegean islands was only military in nature. At the same time it demonstrates that Catherine II’s colonial ambitions were in fact rather limited compared to those of other contemporaneous powers. Not being able to support a colony in the eastern Mediterranean, Russia dreamed only about establishing a small Russian military base that would be surrounded by liberated self-governed Greek territories under Catherine II’s protection. When the liberated Greek islands became an obstacle to enlarging Russian territory on the Black sea coast, however, they were exchanged primarily for Crimea.