Психолингвистические параметры, влияющие на называние объектов и действий
Abstract. There is currently a great need for modern, standardized neuropsychological tests for language assessment in Russian speakers with aphasia. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT). Within the scope of this work, two subtests for single-word comprehension of nouns and verbs were developed considering contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics. The task for both subtests was spoken word-to-picture matching. The subtests were normed on individuals with aphasia (n = 45) and a control group (n = 30). This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trials for nouns and verbs matched on relevant psychometric properties which are sensitive to language impairments for both fluent and non-fluent types of aphasia. This set of trials will be included in the final version of the RAT.
The goal of the present research is to design and test a method for studying object and action naming in patients with gliomas as well as to examine how mental representations for nouns and verbs correlate with the localization of tumor in the brain. The investigation is conducted in Russian. It compares patients’ scores on the test before and after glioma resection. It is shown that before the surgery, patients with tumors in the temporal lobe make more naming mistakes for both objects and actions than patients with tumors in the frontal lobe. After the surgery, response accuracy for verbs and nouns in the “frontal” group remains relatively high, while object naming deteriorates significantly in the group of patients with gliomas in the temporal lobe.
There is a need for modern neurolinguisitcstandardized test for language assessment in aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders in Russian. Our research group is currently working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT)that is based on contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics.Language production subtests assess oral speech at each of the linguistic levels. The material for each task was selected and balanced considering modern theoretical models of language and takes into account important psycholinguistic factors. For many tasks, there is no standardized analogues in Russian with extensive, theoretically justified and carefully selected linguistic material. The subtests were piloted in a group of neurologically healthy individuals (n=20) and patients with different types of aphasia (n=20). As expected patients with aphasia performed worse compared to age-matched healthy controls across all tasks. Items demonstrating high sensitivity and reliability were selected to be included in the final version of the test.
Naming difficulties are one of the most common language deficits in aphasia. The aim of the present study was to develop a psycholinguistic test for object and action naming in aphasia. Data collected during standardization of the subtest for naming objects (116 stimuli) and actions (197 stimuli) demonstrated, that the proposed test is sensitive to anomia in different types and severity of aphasia. Criterion and concurrent validity of the subtest were established as well. Based on collected data more compact subtests for use in the clinic with items of varying difficulty taking into account relevant psycholinguistic properties will be constructed.
There is growing evidence that verbs are more difficult to processes than nouns (Cappa & Perani, 2002) and that verb retrieval is more commonly affected in aphasia compared to nouns (Jonkers & Bastiaanse, 1998). However, existing observations are largely based on naming and semantic judgment tasks. We investigate whether this processing difficulty is modality general. In this study for the first time we directly compare difficulty of comprehension of verbs versus nouns in Russian in individuals with and without aphasia using a novel instrument – a single-word comprehension test presented on a tablet.