Седьмая международная конференция по когнитивной науке: Тезисы докладов. Светлогорск, 20–24 июня 2016 г.
We describe how sport experience influences mental representations of movements and self-instuctions in players of golf, foorball and basketball.
The dynamic and constantly changing environment requires fast and selective sensory processing to maintain adaptive goal-directed behavior. Several classic studies of auditory attention revealed a negative voltage shift of event-related potential (ERP) within the 100 200 ms time window after stimulus onset in the attended channel compared with the unattended channel (Näätänen et al. 1978; Näätänen et al. 2011). This phenomenon was interpreted as an active top-down facilitation of relevant sensory representations. In the same time interval, Alho et al. (1987) found rejection positivity that can be elicited in response to actively ignored sounds, thus, reflecting processes of top-down suppression of irrelevant stimuli. Most of the studies in the field dealt with forced attentional manipulations, while the present study was focused on ERP correlates of spontaneous attentional lapses. We hypothesized that a positive ERP shift similar to the rejection positivity (Alho et al. 1987; Degerman et al. 2008) may be present during spontaneous failures to appropriately detect stimuli. The auditory condensation task was used: four target auditory stimuli that differed in two independent features were presented randomly with equal probability. Each sinusoidal tone was either 500 Hz (‘low’) or 2000 Hz (‘high’), either a pure tone (‘pure’) or the same tone intermixed with broadband noise. Control procedures ensured that each of the stimulus features could be easily discriminated by all participants. Participants were instructed to respond to each stimulus by pressing one of the two buttons according to a rule based on stimulus feature conjunction (see Table), which is a much more demanding task compared with singe feature discrimination (Novikov et al. 2015). In Experiment 1, participants were presented only with target stimuli. In Experiment 2 distractor stimuli were introduced in the sequence of targets. The relative probability ratio of these non-target-stimuli to all four equiprobable target stimuli (same as in experiment 1) pooled together was 4:1. In Experiment 1 (see Figure A), the positive ERP shift within the time window 120-240 ms (P2 peak of auditory ERP) was very robust for errors compared with correct responses (F1,51 = 24.516, p < .0001, ƞp2 = .325, 15 pericentral electrodes). In Experiment 2 (see Figure B), P2 was overlapping with N2 and less evident for target stimuli compared with Experiment 1. Within the P2 time range, ERP was shifted positively for errors compared with correct responses (F1,52 = 4.29, p = 0.04, ƞp2 = 0.08, 9 centro-parietal electrodes). In all the experiments presented here, the ERP within the P2 peak time window was shifted positively during attentional lapses compared with correct responses. This effect resembles the rejection positivity and supports the hypothesis that information processing is reduced preceding erroneous responses (Alho et al. 1987; Degerman et al. 2008); this is likely a consequence of misallocation of attention due to competition with other mental processes such as mind wandering. Importantly, the ERP correlate of spontaneous attentional failures presented here resembles the effect of inattention forced overtly (Degerman et al. 2008; Näätänen et al. 1978; Tong, Melara and Rao 2009). Thus, our finding supports the hypothesis that information processing is reduced during spontaneous attentional lapses leading to erroneous responses.
Commission of error causes the adjustments in a number of brain systems related to goal-directed behavior. Errors may be caused by failures of motor inhibition or by general attentional lapses, which lead to the different neural adjustments with their specific electrophysiological and behavioral correlates (van Driel et al., 2012; Danielmeier and Ullsperger, 2011). Thus, post-error adjustments may lead both to non-specific increase of motor threshold or to specific improvement of stimulus processing and decision making, with different brain systems involved in these processes (King et al., 2010). In the present study, we aimed at the investigation of error-related theta and alpha band power modulations and of corresponding behavioral adjustments.
An auditory two-choice version of the condensation task was used in the experiment (Posner, 1964; Chernyshev et al., 2015). Subjects were presented with random sequence of tones; each tone was either 500 Hz (‘low’) or 2000 Hz (‘high’), either a pure tone (‘pure’) or the same tone intermixed with broadband noise. The participants were instructed to respond to stimuli with pressing left or right button on a gamepad, according to the memorized rule (see Table 1). Correct responses after stimulus onset were immediately followed by a positive feedback (a schematic smiling face) presented for 500 ms after the response. This task is highly demanding for sustained attention, but implies no to-be-inhibited “automatic” responses. We analyzed modulations of non-phase-locked theta (4 – 7 Hz) and alpha (8 – 12 Hz) EEG power that occurs on erroneous and post-error correct trials. We used data-driven approach with threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE)-based permutational correction for multiple spatial-time-frequency bins in order to avoid a priori ROI selection. Also, we analyzed correlations between post-error spectral modulations and behavioral variables (percentage of errors and post-error slowing), using Spearman’s correlation coefficient.
Response times (RT) on erroneous trials was significantly larger than on correct trials (t = 9.48, p < 0.001). No significant post-error slowing (PES) was found (t=-0.53, p=0.60). Errors (compared to correct trials) lead to significantly (p < 0.05) increased frontal midline theta (FMT) power (0 – 400 ms), followed by the enhanced alpha band suppression in the parietal (400 – 700 ms) and the left central regions (500 – 1000 ms) (Fig. 1A, top row). Based on these results, we selected three regions of interest: R1 – frontal midline theta, R2 – posterior alpha, R3 – left central alpha (Fig. 1A, top row). Stronger parietal alpha suppression was associated with better task performance, stronger left central alpha suppression was associated with more pronounced PES, and FMT increase positively correlated with both behavioral variables (Fig. 1B). On post-error correct trials (compared to post-correct ones), the following significant (p < 0.05) effects were found (Fig. 1A, bottom row): stronger pre-response left-central alpha suppression (-1000 – -250 ms); stronger generalized alpha suppression around the response (-150 – 500 ms), weaker post-response FMT power (0 – 600 ms).
We believe that our results suggest the occurrence of the conflict / error detection signal, followed by the signals of attentional reconfiguration and motor threshold adjustment. These adjustments resulted in optimized performance on the subsequent trials, accompanied by the reduced uncertainty of the response and decreased conflict. Our findings presumably indicate post-error adaptations in several brain systems, and extend the literature on sustained attention lapses and cognitive control.
A crucial process for speech production is the retrieval of a target words from mental lexicon. People are remarkably fast and accurate in this process: when we speak we correctly retrieve the intended word from a repository containing several thousand items less than in half a second.