Reasoning vs. Orthodoxy, or, The Lesson from the Fate of Russian “Reasoning Machine”
This paper devoted to Russian scientist Alexander Schukarev and his work on logical machine. Historically, this work may be divided on two periods – before and after Russian October revolution. We try to understand and explain why Schukarev's activity in this field was ceased and his logical machine was forgotten for the long time.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th IFIP TC 9 International Conference on Human Choice and Computers, HCC11 2014, held in Turku, Finland, in July/August 2014. The 29 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are based on both academic research and the professional experience of information technologists working in the field.
The KR Conference series is a leading forum for timely in- depth presentation of progress in the theory and principles underlying the representation and computational management of knowledge. The 2014 KR conference was held as part of the Vienna Summer of Logic, a consortium of 12 conferences and 82 workshops organized by the Kurt Gödel Society at the Vienna University of Technology.
The principle that logic provides norms for reasoning is a traditional basis for demarcating the bounds of logic as a discipline. Nowadays, the role of logic in ‘everyday reasoning’ has been challenged. The main aim of this study is to show the advantages of shifting focus towards dynamic model of normativity.
The present research addresses the role of recurrence in structuring the composition and developing the author’s argumentative line and analyses different types of recurrence depending on the literary genre. It is claimed that recurrence occurs at all layers: phoneme, morpheme, word, word combination, phrase and the whole text. The research proves that recurrent structures possess an ability to emphasize and accumulate information for further reproduction preconditioning their role in developing the author’s idea and contributing to the text cohesion and coherence.
The paper analyzes students’ written assignments and looks at the challenges that the students faced when preparing those assignments. The objective of carrying out this analysis is to optimize the teaching process to develop academic writing skills. Contextual analysis was used to achieve the objective. Moreover, the paper includes the literature review on the topic. It helped to identify the main challenges that professors and students face in Academic Writing (teaching Academic Writing separately without integrating other skills and only to achieve the teaching goals; students’ and professors’ differing interpretations of the significance of various assessment criteria; one-way feedback, usually with criticisms only) and to determine the solutions to those challenges. The analysis of the students’ written assignments revealed that the students are aware of the criteria applied to the language of this sort of papers but they have poor skills to arrange their ideas logically (the connection between the topic sentence and arguments or between the arguments and minor supporting details is implied but not explained clearly). That is the reason why the author offers a set of measures that can help students to develop this skill: teaching academic writing together with critical reading; setting a forum for students where they can discuss the topics, arising challenges and possible solutions; detailed instruction and feedback sessions, etc. The paper also offers a set of exercises that may help students to improve the quality of their written assignments.
The centuries-old development of logical machines is very interesting page of both computer technology and logic history. In fact, logical machines cannot be called the ancestors of modern computers but our analysis allows us to state for surely that these devices were the very first predecessors of contemporary intellectual informational technologies. In this article we give the review of logical machines built before the beginning of computer era. In contrast to the classic book of Martin Gardner «Logic machines and diagrams» (1958) our paper includes descriptions of all known logical machines. Some of them (e.g. devices of Alfred Smee) Gardner described only briefly and some («virtual» logical machine of Jonathan Swift, Round Demonstrator of Earl Stanhope, machines intellectueles of Semion Korsakov, logical machines of Pavel Khruschev and Aleksandr Schukarev) did not mention at all.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the dichotomy of formal and informal styles of reasoning in the perspective of practical turn in logic. The heuristic potential of the concept "image of logic" introduced by I.N. Griftsova for the critics of essentialist theories of formality will be revealed