По ту сторону лозунгов: практики приспособления к политическим кампаниям в 1945-1953 гг.
The article is devoted to the Soviet phenomenon of «letters to authorities». Three major interpretations of «letters» are presented: 1) as a way to implement the democratic right for participating in state management and right for justice; 2) as an instrument for repressive political campaign; 3) as a significant form of personal identification with authorities. Claims were an important social phenomenon of the Soviet life. The author presents typical and specific claims (on the materials of Perm State Archives of Contemporary History) and ways of dealing with them on the local level. The author analyses the post-war years’ claims, which help to understand the peculiarities of the Soviet everyday life, the rhetoric of the era, and the forms of citizens’ resistance to injustice.
Topic of the article - part of the Regional (Molotov) print in a political campaign in 1946 political campaign was initiated by the decision of the organ-izing bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) "On the magazines" Zvezda "and" Leningrad ". Actually it started in the regions after the report Zhdanov. The mechanism of the campaign assumed a certain course of events: the publication in major newspapers of the country, republication of all the local newspapers, the discussion at the meetings of party activists, and then in all or-ganizations, the search for similar cases in the territory. And then, these cases could be the reason for the arrest of any person. Main topic of the article - the role of local media in the implementation of the political campaign of 1946. Press play the role of "collective propagandist," "collective agitator" and "collec-tive organizer." People often believe the press more than the actual events and their life experience. According to the materials of newspaper articles is analyzed the process of forming a new power of discourse about literature. Molotov newspaper borrowed the rhetoric of the campaign at once. Molotov regional newspaper "The Star" reprinted editorial "Truth", calling for self-criticism. That's all. Local newspapers have joined separately and with different intensity publications. The newspapers did not have to name any of the local artists who could claim to be the local "Zoschenko." The campaign was an unsystematic character, it is weakly governed from the center. It can be assumed that the initi-ators of the campaign were not interested in expanding the circle of victims, but pursued the ideological goals: to bring to the collective consciousness of the So-viet intelligentsia, a new discourse of power: the pathetic, pathetic, authoritarian, in fact, a new version of the Soviet identity. Local authorities skillfully took ad-vantage of actually closing their territory from unwanted consequences of Mos-cow's beginnings. They have limited political effect of mechanical duplication of the capital campaign rhetoric and duty calls develop criticism and self-criticism. In the next issue of political campaigns has been improved.
Analysis of various approaches to the study of everyday life shows the importane of literary texts as a source of not only facts from daily life of the past, but also of the views of the author's contemporaries on a variety of events. "Starik Khottabych", a tale by Soviet children's story writer L/Laguin, is discussed as an unconventional example of how changes in everyday life are reflected in the literature of the time. Similarities are also revealed between "Starik Khottabych" and the highly acclaimed satirical novels by Ilf and Petrov, "Twelve Chairs" amd "The Little Golden Calf". In both cases, a protagonist disconnected from Soviet realities serves to create an estrangement effect, which highlights some problems inherent in that reality and not necessarily articulated by the contemporaries.
The collection includes scientific, literary, journalistic materials and interviews of culturologists and literary critics from different countries (Germany, Georgia, Poland, Russia, USA, etc.), as well as observers of post-Soviet transformations of Russian-Georgian relations. The main task of the research is to highlight the current topics and perspectives of modeling the new reality of this literary and cultural field within the framework of interdisciplinary and international dialogue. It was literature that provided useful material that allowed us to look behind the scenes of geopolitical narratives, since politically significant thought categories are inextricably linked with both literary images of Russia and Georgia, and with the Russian-Georgian myth. If in the Soviet era, this myth contributed to the almost ritual study of the history of relations between the two peoples, since the second half of the 1980s it has become a kind of Foundation for political, military, as well as, as it seemed, and cultural division of the once "fraternal republics".