К вопросу о становлении силлабо-тонического стихосложения в Нидерландах (некоторые особенности ритмики 4-стопного ямба на фоне языковых моделей размера)
One of the particular characteristics of Russian verse is its high level of rhythmic flexibility, attributable to a high frequency of pyrrhic feet. This research attempts to reconstruct how this situation was built on earlier periods of the development of Russian verse. Its results place in doubt the classic notion that the prevalence of pyrrhic feet arose out of the substantial length of the Russian word. A comparison of how the rhythm of iambic tetrameter developed in Dutch, German, and Russian verse shows that the level of metrical flexibility does not depend on the average length of the rhythmic (phonetic) word in a language. The historical conditions surrounding the emergence of syllabotonic verse and the evolution of versification clearly played a decisive role in the prevalence of pyrrhic feet in Russian verse.
The book undertakes a comprehensive quantitative study of the Bashkir verse system in the 20th century. All levels of poetic text organization from phonics to vocabulary and grammar with special attention to the meter and rhythm are analyzed using modern statistical tools. Quantitative data were obtained on the corous of texts of 103 Bashkir poets with the total volume of 1.77 million words in use. Actually, the analysis is preceded by a detailed review of the science of Turkic poetry starting from the 1950s. It is asserted that the main role in the Bashkir poem of the 20th century is played by the sillabic forms with folklore origin of uzun-kyu and kyska-kyu, the first of which is specific for the Volga-Kipchak poetic tradition. One of the chapters gives a detailed comparison of the Bashkir verse with the Kyrgyz verse. The book concludes with examples of poetic texts in the Bashkir language, generated using artificial neural networks.
It is commonly believed that post-Vedic and late Sanskrit texts attest overall confusing of the active and middle inflection, so that both types of endings can be employed nearly interchangeably, at least for several verbs. This paper demonstrates that, even in spite of the fact that the active/middle opposition becomes heavily deteriorated by the end of the OIA period, it is not entirely devoid of any functional weight. In particular, the -ya-presents normally inflected in the active in early (Vedic) language, such as śudhyati/-te ‘becomes clean’, become common with the middle inflection from the Sūtra period onwards. The paper argues that the choice of the inflection (active/middle) is mainly determined by metrical reasons.