Генерализованое доверие и кооперативное поведение личности
The article presents the results of study dedicated to interrelation of trust, cooperative behavior and the size of the winning prize in the multi-way decision modified prisoner's dilemma. The experiment was organized using a specially designed computer program application. The study involved six groups of participants and each group was consisted of 7 players. The experiment consisted of a 15-series and included preliminary and final testing. The study found that the cooperative behavior within the members in the group had fallen down during the 11-series, but there was a tendency to continuously improving it. The trust level of an individual and his/her choice of cooperative strategy in the first series of the experiment are interrelated. Generalized trust is a rather stable construct, but it does not remain unchanged with the actual reduction of cooperative behavior.
The literature suggests that interpersonal trust is essential for building effective entrepreneurial networks. According to the 2011 World Values Survey and recent national surveys, more than 60% of Russians believe that caution is warranted when dealing with others. Low levels of social trust may affect entrepreneurs’ readiness to build networks based on trust, which is defined as a psychological state comprising a willingness to act based upon positive expectations of other person’s intentions or behaviour. This paper addresses the role trust plays in the building of business networks by Russian entrepreneurs. It also considers how trust between network participants changes over time. The findings are based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews of 59 entrepreneurs from traditional, low, medium, and highly innovative SMEs. The paper identifies and compares the mechanisms that Russian entrepreneurs representing SMEs in four innovativeness categories use to build trust in their business networks, especially in terms of the cognitive, affective, and behavioural aspects of trust. It also highlights differences in how entrepreneurs representing SMEs in various innovativeness categories use mechanisms of trust to build and govern their business networks. The derived understanding can help entrepreneurial network participants be more effective, especially in terms of avoiding mistakes associated with the underestimation of the importance of trust in building long-term business relations.
The book includes proceedings of the conference “Business. Society. Human” (October 30–31, 2013, Moscow) organized by National Research University Higher School of Economics. The purpose of the conference: interdisciplinary analysis of actual problems of studying business in the social sciences: the relationship between business and society; social capital and trust; business and corporate culture; individual, group and organization in business; problems and prospects of business education and business consulting, etc. The book present the results of researches of trust and social capital carried out in various countries in Europe, Asia and in Russia. Authors are well-known sociologists, psychologists and economists. The results of these researches were presented at the conference. The papers are published as they were submitted by the author.
Collaboration and trust relationships are important success factors in supply chain management. However, in practice relationships between counterparties in supply chain face conflicts preventing from building ideal supply chain collaboration. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of agent-based model that helps to understand how individual behavior of counterparties in conflict situations and collaboration strategy effect on supply chain efficiency in dynamics. The research is based on Russian retail case study, describing a grocery sector where key market stakeholders are retailers and suppliers (manufacturers). The important feature of Russian grocery sector is a dominating power of retailers over suppliers. Author investigates the main drivers of conflicts in retailer-supplier’s relationships and offers a specification of agent-based model.
Based on a representative survey of 300 manufacturing enterprises, as well as on the dataset collected by the authors and containing information on the status and main economic indicators of the analyzed companies, the paper discusses the influence of organizational social capital on the survival of Russian industrial enterprises during the economic crisis. Three indicators here measured the organizational social capital, i.e. relations between managers and employees: trust, the degree of formality of relations, and cooperation between managers and employees. The paper concludes that only the level of cooperation between managers and employees measured by the responses of workers positively influenced the chances of survival of an industrial enterprise during a crisis, while the trust and the level of formality of relations turned out to be insignificant in a Russian setting.
In the article authors analyse the role of trust in increase the work effectiveness of customer contact personnel. The nature of customer contact personnel managering and the possibility of their involvement to the organization strategic activity are examine. The extend to which contact personal trust their supervisors positively influence their willingness to participate in strategic activities. Communication in the format of “employee – supervisor” moderate the relationship between trust and strategic activities. Thus, the more contact personnel are involved in the strategic process, the more likely the company is waiting for the contact person’s selling performance rise. In the article we assume that strategic activity includes behaviors such as generating new ideas, synthesizing strategic information, facilitating strategic initiatives, and integrating strategic information to the management process.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between social capital and subjective ranking of household economic well-being in transition countries. The current study tests whether the performance of formal institutions moderates this link. The analyses are based on the data from the second wave of the Life in Transition Survey. The measures “generosity of welfare policy (social safety nets)” and “ability of formal institutions to control inflation” were provided by the Bertelsmann Transformation Index Project. The study uses four measures of social capital: trust in family, trust in friends and acquaintances, trust in most people, the number of support sources. To test the hypotheses, the study employs mixed-effects regression models. The study indicates a significant positive effect of social capital on subjective household well-being. Formal institutions do not have a significant effect on subjective ranking of household well-being. The evidence on institutions as moderators rejects the substitution effect between formal institutions and social capital. Higher generosity of welfare policy institutions and higher ability of formal institutions to control inflation strengthen the positive effect of particular trust (trust in family and trust in friends and acquaintances) on subjective ranking on the ladder of social standing (subjective ranking of household well-being), which is in line with the “crowding in” theory. The paper adds on the limited research on transition countries. The paper contributes to the discussion on “crowding in” and “crowding out” effects of formal institutions on social capital.
The notions of happiness and trust as cements of the social fabric and political legitimacy have a long history in Western political thought. However, despite the great contemporary relevance of both subject, and burgeoning literatures in the social sciences around them, historians and historians of thought have, with some exceptions, unduly neglected them. In Trust and Happiness in the History of European Political Thought, editors Laszlo Kontler and Mark Somos bring together twenty scholars from different generations and academic traditions to redress this lacuna by contextualising historically the discussion of these two notions from ancient Greece to Soviet Russia. Confronting this legacy and deep reservoir of thought will serve as a tool of optimising the terms of current debates.