Культурное восприятие коррупции в Израиле
The author has completed the comprehensive analysis of the last Arab League Summit that took place from 27 to 28 SUMMARY 78 АЗИЯ И АФРИКА сегодня№ 9 2010 March 2010 in Sirte (Libya) showing contradictions arising within the organization. These were issues of the first priority: the relationship with Israel in light of expansion of the program of building Jewish settlements in East Jerusalem, the problems of reforming the Arab League etc.. Due to Leagues increased contacts with non Arab states (primarily Turkey and Iran) members of the summit have reviewed a draft treaty submitted by the Arab League Secretary General Amre Moussa, who has suggested to create the Arab Neighborhood Zone. Issues proposed for consideration at the Extraordinary Summit of Arab League in October 2010, are also analyzed.
The efficiency of social reforms in different countries mostly depends on the extent to which they can be accepted by people. Moreover, even if the problems are similar, the reasons may differ, which can lead to fail in applying existing laws of one state to another one. Bribery, as shows the Corruption Perception Index, calculated by Transparency International, is a typical problem for developing countries – that also matches research (Levin & Satarov, 2000; Ilzetzki, 2010) concluding that corruption has roots in socialist regimes and that in recently established political stability instable economic situation leads to growth in crime. The main problem within the scope of this project is to identify the relation between corruption perception and level of trust in the society and to distinguish the differences in factors affecting these characteristics in post-soviet countries. The research discoveres that distrust matters a lot for the problem in Russia and suggests further examining European countries in order to explain the difference in trust.
This paper examines determinants of corruption across Russian regions. Key contributions include: (i) a formal study of economic corruption determinants across Russian regions; (ii) comparisons of determinants of perceived corruption versus those of actual corruption; and (iii) studying the influence of market competition and other factors on corruption. The re-sults show that economic prosperity, population, market competition and urbanization are significant determinants of Russian corruption. The use of alternative corruption measures reveals that economic prosperity and population have a largely similar impact on corrup-tion perceptions and corruption incidence. However, there are significant differences in the effects of competition and urbanization.
Shortening of available volumes of a natural resource can become an engine for the new technologies development, and these technologies would help using it more effectively or would allow substituting it with some other resource. In Israel state policy aiming to shortening of the demand for sweet water together with subsiding of new technologies which allow to produce sweet water and to substitute it, led to a new phenomena. Technologies that evolved appeared to be skill-biased and water-replacing, which because of special properties of the substitute resource (intellectual resource) leads to economic development of the country.
Exploring complicated social-economic phenomena, such as corruption, implies understanding various characteristics of the society. In particular, the level of social capital can be judged as an indicator of system efficiency. In this paper we investigate the relations between personal and general trust and corruption perceptions using data from the survey conducted in 2013 in NRU HSE – Nizhny Novgorod master programs.
Preliminary results show that correlation between those parameters happen to differ depending on the type of trust and network characteristics, therefore further analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators is needed.